A great beginning

We have begun refilling the lion’s mane chamber. Harvests have already been occurring with many more lion’s manes on their way! See you at the Farmers Market!

Happy 2021!

Unexpected shiitakes

Last year, what appeared to be shiitakes were noticed to be naturalizing in the forest. This year, we paid closer attention and they are indeed shiitakes! They tasted great last night. Clones were attempted and will be tested on bags and on logs. Stay tuned for further developments of our new local shiitake strain.

NOT Hericium abietis

4 April 2019 UPDATE:

These are unmistakably Hericium erinaceus that were grown from a commercial liquid culture misidentified as Hericium abietis. There is no question about that identification; especially as they have begun putting on teeth and slicing one opened revealed a solid interior. At least now I know why I’ve been puzzling over their appearance looking so stubbornly underdeveloped!

For sake of comparison, the first image below is of a correctly identified Hericium abietis photographed at the Mount Pisgah Mushroom Festival at Eugene, Oregon.

Hericium abietis
Hericium abietis

The following show what was grown from a commercial culture that was purchased earlier this year. The amazing part is that these mushrooms grew so well on a mixture of douglas-fir, white pine and spruce!

Hericium erinaceus sold as Hericium abietis and grown on conifer media.
Hericium erinaceus sold as Hericium abietis and grown on conifer media.
Hericium erinaceus sold as Hericium abietis and grown on conifer media.
0.5 lb. mushroom
Hericium erinaceus sold as Hericium abietis and grown on conifer media.
There is no mistaking those teeth
Hericium erinaceus sold as Hericium abietis and grown on conifer media.
That is very clearly the flesh of an erinaceus not abietis.

That mushroom was delicious in dinner last night. Both the taste and the texture were excellent.

NOT Hericium abietis 3 April 2019

I am amazed at how big these are getting prior to putting on their adult teeth. Those bags are 9 inches (22.95 cm) wide.
The media is a supplemented blend of doug-fir, pine and spruce.

However, the ID of these is presently in question until I start seeing a lot more tooth and branch development.

Hericium abietis on 3 April 2019
NOT Hericium abietis on 3 April 2019
Hericium abietis on 3 April 2019
Hericium abietis on 3 April 2019

23 March 2019

The lighter colored media (six bags in a tray and four on a shelf below it) are our first testing of Hericium abietis. They are just starting to fruit.

Rather than creating a new post, here is a closer look at a couple of what are NOT Hericium abietis on the 26th of March.

not abietis

And a look at the NOT Hericium abietis on the 29th of March.

Hericium abietis
young NOT Hericium abietis
young Hericium abietis
young NOT Hericium abietis

Spring is almost here!

A recent view of the lion’s mane chamber

A slideshow and talk was recently given to the Mendocino Coast Mushroom Club. It was a lot of fun that included meeting a bunch of really nice mushroom people!

I had hoped to load that slideshow to the website but encountered some technical difficulties. It was instead turned into a ~157mb PDF that can be accessed HERE. The only slide that did not import was the video above.

Lion’s manes are back!

The first harvest of a few lion’s manes occurred this week. Unsurprisingly they all sold at yesterday’s market. More are on the way for this Saturday’s Farmers Market and for next week.

Hericium erinaceus 11 september 2018

Hericium erinaceus 11 September 2018

August update

We decided to take advantage of the hot weather for pressure washing the entire facility. We will be back at the Farmer’s Markets in early September.

Another great week.

This week saw a total harvest of 21 pounds of lion’s manes and a much smaller amount of shiitakes. Our mushrooms have been selling out the past couple of weeks so we will keep expanding our production to fulfill the growing demand.

We hope to see you at the Ft. Bragg, Mendocino or Ukiah certified Farmers Market.

Hericium erinaceus

Lion’s mane mushrooms (Hericium erinaceus)




See you at the Farmer’s Market.

Lion’s mane harvests are still on the light side (4 kg were harvested from the two trays shown fruiting in the previous video) but despite that they made some people in Mendocino happy last week (and a couple in Ukiah). A light offering of our mushrooms will be at Ft. Bragg today and more at Ukiah on Saturday; with lots more to come and another round of bags scheduled to be opened and added today. We will also be at Mendocino next week.

Another week of mushroom growth; shown on Tuesday afternoon..


AND, while the next shiitakes to be harvested from our spawn bag production are still some weeks in the future, the first few shiitakes are beginning on some of the ricks that were plugged last summer.


A young shiitake mushroom (Lentinulus edodes)

A young shiitake mushroom (Lentinulus edodes)


Spring in 2018

We are looking forward to the 2018 Farmer’s Market season!
This year we will be sharing mushrooms with The Forest People so we will be offering each other’s mushrooms; our lion’s manes and their oysters respectively. One or both of us hopes to see you in Mendocino, Ft. Bragg or Ukiah at the MCFarm certified farmers market.
A look at the Hericium fruiting chamber today is below. It appears that we will be back at a steady pace again within the next two weeks.

Hericium erinaceus -- Lion's mane

These are ready to harvest.


The garden is gearing up for Spring also.

We will soon have gobo (burdock root) and will be bringing some incredible ha gobo leaves to the next farmer’s market. This has become one of our favorite greens. It has a flavor similar to collards but with a luscious velvety mouth feel.


Ha gobo leaf

Ha gobo leaf

New life in 2018

After resolving a technical problem with our ISP, all of our web content and email occurring since the 26th of last July has vanished.

Some views of the Hericium fruiting chamber are below; taking us up to the point of a fungus gnat invasion in January. We shut down following that discovery (look for discolored or prematurely toothy fruiting bodies to see its beginning), decontaminated the entire facility, built another layer of entryway protection and are now in the process of refilling the chamber with bags again for 2018 Farmers Market.
New videos will be added soon showing our progress but for now here are some looks at our experience occurring between late July 2017 and January 2018.

Two weeks of growth: part 2 — 28 July 2017 IMG 2607

Two weeks of growth: part 3 — 28 July 2017 IMG 2620

Two weeks of growth: part 4 — 1 aug 2017 IMG 2622

Two weeks of growth: part 5 — 1 aug 2017 IMG 2642

Two weeks of growth: part 6 — 5 aug 2017 IMG 2661

Two weeks of growth: part 7 — 9 aug 2017 IMG 2676

Hericium erinaceus 2018 January 04 IMG 5042

Hericium erinaceus 13 Jan 2018 IMG 5335

Hericium erinaceus 19 Jan 2018 IMG 5793

Hericium erinaceus 25 january 2018 IMG 5959

26 July 2017

The Hericium fruiting chamber today.

This year’s spring rains added some challenges but we are now in the process of getting our production back up to speed.
We look forward to seeing you at the Boonville Farmer’s Market.


Another great year!

2017 promises to be an exiting year.  We hope to see you at the Boonville Farmer’s Market.

As of February 25, 2017, we can now accept payments using credit cards or PayPal at the Farmer’s Market.

Recent views

We made a small harvest for market in between these two sets of images but thought it would be of interest to see some paired images from 30 September and 1 October as they show how fast lion’s manes can grow.


cultivated Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-09-30

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-10-01

Hericium erinaceus 2016-09-30

Hericium erinaceus 2016-09-30

cultivated Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-10-01


Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-09-30

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-10-01


Good CO2 levels for Hericium erinaceus

Good CO2 levels for Hericium erinaceus

2 March 2016

Amazing Mushrooms!by Natural Products of Boonville

We look forward to seeing you at this week’s Farmer’s Market.

We will have lots of lion’s manes, a few Hericium americanum and shiitakes.
Also some potatoes for your planting delight.


19 November 2015

It is actually the 4th of December and I had hoped to post this pair of youtube videos a few days ago so am editing an older post.

The first view was following a harvest and the beginning of another round of open bags. Some from the previous round are still going and on their second flush.



This was the view on 24 November.


There is another video at youtube that was taken in between those. The camera had become lost and does not reliably date media so the day it was taken is unclear but was likely on the 21st or 22nd of November.

Lions mane

Hericium erinaceus 24 October 2015

Cultivated: 167 grams (1/3rd lb.)



Hericium erinaceus 1 November 2015

Wild: 730 grams


We can’t sell wild mushrooms but we certainly do eat them! Part of this one was delicious last night cooked with chicken and vegetables.

And there was another Lion’s mane that was found today (2 November). Harvesting mushrooms such as this one can be potentially dangerous.


I did not manage to bring this one down as a single, 791 gram, piece.


There was another one above it that was easily 30+ feet higher on the tree (so it was safe from me).

Hericium tree

A Chinese adage is good to keep in mind considering Hericium erinaceus eats trees:
Fools and smoke like to climb high

Hericium tree

This is that same tree when I checked it a month ago (5 October)

Hericium tree


Getting back into gear

Things are moving along well as we begin refilling the Hericium fruiting chamber.

These images are from 22 October 2015.

We just completed a nice harvest, removed those trays and replaced them with the spawn bags that are ready. We hope to see you at this weekend’s Farmer’s Market.
It will be the second to last certified Farmer’s Market of the season.


Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus


Hericium erinaceus

Forming fruit


Hericium erinaceus

Top tray is forming fruit; bottom tray was just opened


Hericium erinaceus

Just opened


Hericium erinaceus

Just opened


Hericium erinaceus

Bags at various stages of colonization


Hericium erinaceus

Colonizing bags


Hericium erinaceus

New arrivals


Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus


Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

What is in our mushrooms?

1 lb of shiitake

What goes into our mushrooms is really simple.

We start with tan-oak (Lithocarpus densifolia) sawdust from the local business Frank’s Firewood.
Frank is in the business of producing and selling firewood but that process creates a lot of great sawdust which is perfect for our needs. Frank refuses to take in any trees that have been killed or treated with herbicides.

Frank's Firewood sawdust from Frank's Firewood sawdust from Frank's Firewood

sawdust from Frank's Firewood
To that is added organic wheat bran and the highest-quality pure gypsum that is considered to be ‘organic’. We are not presently recognized as organic producers but do our best to include only pure ingredients.

When we make spawn, we use organic rye grain. If we order commercial grain spawn it comes from a certified organic producer.


The only other thing that we incorporate in the recipe for our mushroom growing media is the high-quality water from our protected well.

We are taking it one step farther and as of late February 2016 will be using only organic nonGMO dextrose which is derived from grapes and imported from Italy thanks to Naturalia Ingredients and Ciranda. There was so much difficulty locating organic dextrose that we have decided to offer small quantities at reasonable prices to other mushroom producers who are wanting to use entirely organic ingredients.

organic nonGMO dextrose

Lion’s mane are delicate and fragile mushrooms that can bruise easily (compare ours to those from other producers). To minimize handling, and any bruising or discoloration, we carefully pick each individual Lion’s manes using a bakery tissue and gently nestle them together loosely. Most mushrooms, such as shiitakes, don’t require that. Whenever possible all of our mushrooms are harvested directly into their resale packaging. Boxes such as the one below promptly go into refrigeration to ensure you of the longest possible shelflife.

The most important thing we put into the production of all of our mushrooms is a lot of love.

Freshly picked Lion's manes

Freshly picked Lion’s manes

Simple is good.

Hericium erinaceus




Equinox 2015

The hot temperatures lately seemed to suggest a perfect opportunity to clean the fruiting chamber and get ready for some nice Hericium weather again (outdoors and indoors).

After summer maintenance

After summer maintenance

After summer maintenance

After summer maintenance

That process all went great but for reasons we do not understand recovery is proceeding a little slowly. We had hoped to have the lion’s manes back in action for this week’s Farmer’s Market but it appears they won’t catch up with the interest until midweek next week.

the fruiting chamber is back on

the fruiting chamber is back on

the fruiting chamber is back on and starting to fill again

the fruiting chamber is back on and starting to fill again

lion's manes on their way

lion’s manes on their way

Shiitakes are still ongoing and increasing in numbers.




Tomatoes in recent weeks:


Betimes Macbeth


Black-brown boar


Black-brown boar


Chef Hubert


Black-brown boar


Cherokee Purple


Cherokee Purple


Clackamath Blueberry


Green brandy


Green brandy


Betimes Macbeth and Matt’s Folly


A delicious mixture


Yellow heirlooms


Striped students


Striped students


Striped students


Matt’s Folly




Cooking mushrooms

Downloadable PDF version of this page

Cooking with the Lion’s Mane mushrooms (Hericium species)

There are many ways to cook the Lion’s mane (Hericium) mushrooms.
My favorite two:

1)  Cut into 1/2 inch slices or if solid and very large the slices also get re-sliced into 1/2” wide strips. Some people prefer to tear them into pieces. Try both approaches to discover which you like best.

Wild harvested mushrooms, including Lion’s mane, will usually go into a dry fry pan at the beginning to ‘sweat out’ a lot of liquid (and flavor). which will then take a few minutes to reduce and be re-sorbed back into the mushroom (usually 6-8).
If the hericiums were cultivated, or if they were wild harvested during periods of non-rainy weather, they usually need a few tablespoons of water to be added at first (and occasionally more later) to prevent scorching.
If oil is used it should be only enough to prevent sticking. Too much results in frying the mushroom. Ideally just small bits of water should be used at this point.

The mushrooms should be started on a medium high heat and cooked for around 1-2 minutes with stirring — just to get them completely hot quickly, then the heat should then be reduced to medium low or low and they should be cooked covered for another 15 minutes with occasional stirring. Halfway into the cooking add a small amount of butter or a 2:1 mixture of olive oil and butter.
Wine or other optional liquid seasonings should be added only towards the end of the cooking process or they can be absorbed to the point of obscuring the delicate flavor of the lion’s mane.

2)  Start out the same as above but add the butter and/or oil much sooner, as soon as liquids have been resorbed by the mushrooms. (be sure that all excess liquid has been resorbed before adding butter/oil) and cook over moderate heat until the edges and teeth begin to get golden-brown and crunchy.  This will require  a bit more oil than the first method plus very close monitoring towards the end, to avoid scorching.

All Hericium mushroom species freeze well once cooked. They can be prepared when available, packed into half-pint jars, and frozen for use at another time.

Easy Chicken with Lion’s Mane, peppers & potatoes

Thinly slice or dice a medium onion and a largish clove of garlic.
Lightly cook in a frying pan in oil. I greatly like a blend of Avocado oil and roasted garlic olive oil.
Add 1/2 dozen baby bell peppers cut into quarters.
When the color of the onions and the peppers begins to change, turn over and add 1-3/4# organic boneless chicken thighs, approximately 2 cups of (four medium sized)
potatoes or the equivalent in small potatoes,  roughly same amount of Hericium as potatoes (cut into 1/2 inch sections; or if large the slices should be resliced into 1/2″ wide strips) approximately two cups once chopped. I like to add one or two slices of butter at that point as well.
Cover and cook on medium-low to medium heat until the chicken is done.  Usually 15-20 minutes.
Salt and/or pepper to taste, if needed.
Hot peppers may be added with the bell peppers if heat is desired and the chicken may be omitted if a vegetarian dish is desired.
If the chicken is omitted more monitoring is required and a few tablespoons of water may be needed in order to prevent scorching of the vegetables.


Cooking with Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes)

Cook them in good oil such as butter, olive-oil:butter, avocado oil, etcetera until the slices are limp.
Shiitakes are versatile. They can be stir fried, baked plain or stuffed, marinated and grilled, added whole to the vegetables that get cooked along with a roast or in an earthen oven, added to soups, stews or meat dishes, or they can be cooked alone and enjoyed as  dish. Precooked shiitakes can also then be combined with other foods such as omelettes, vegetables, soups and salads. It may be convenient to cook enough mushrooms for adding to 2 or 4 meals.  Cooked shiitakes freeze acceptably.
Butter, garlic & a little salt may compliment shiitakes own distinctive flavor.
Stems of shiitakes are most often fibrous and very tough. They should be removed before cooking.
Thicker stems can be very thinly sliced and fried until golden brown in butter or butter and oil for a crispy-to-chewy treat. Thinner, tougher stems can be dried and ground into a powder for later use as a thickening agent in soups, stews, stock reductions and many types of sauces. Or stems *can* be discarded.

Shiitake ‘bacon’ with sea-palm fronds

Slice shiitakes thin but not too thinly. A couple to several (2-4) mm is fine. Try to slice them evenly.
Place the slices into a bowl and add a minimum amount of your favorite cooking oil then gently stir extremely well. A variant of this is to spread the slices out on a cooking sheet and lightly mist with a light spray of oil before tossing to coat all surfaces. It is important to not use too much oil.
The goal is to get a bare minimum but thorough coating of oil on all of the mushrooms. A special touch can be created by adding a drop of liquid smoke to the oil and shaking very well before oiling the mushrooms.
Once this is done lightly season with sea salt and again mix thoroughly. Other seasonings can also be added but keeping it simple has great results.
Spread the shiitakes out into a single layer on a foil or parchment paper lined baking sheet. Sprinkle the top with coarse sea salt.
Bake in a preheated 350°F oven, checking frequently, especially towards the end.
You want them to cook completely dry, turning brown with some golden parts. This takes a few minutes (15 or more minutes is common; the hotter the oven the faster it goes but monitor them carefully as rotating the pan may be required in some ovens. The last few minutes of this goes very fast so it requires a close eye to prevent burning.
Using care, transfer the baked mushrooms from the hot sheet into a bowl.
Let it cool and you now have a bowl of shiitake bacon.
Break some crunchy dried sea palm fronds into smaller pieces & toss with your shiitake bacon. Enjoy.
If you are an optimist this can be packed into a jar and placed into a refrigerator for storage. If you are a realist you will probably leave it available on the counter knowing it will be consumed very quickly.

Caution: this food item may be found to be compulsively addictive.

It is important to cook shiitakes thoroughly.

Approximately one in 50 or more people appear to have a sensitivity to uncooked or undercooked shiitakes. Most shiitakes consumed in the world are dried and then rehydrated; drying is not the same as cooking and a thorough cooking is still needed.
In those rare individuals who are allergic, consuming undercooked or raw shiitakes may result in a skin rash resembling poison oak but accompanied by characteristic scratch-like lines (“flagellate”). If there is an allergic reaction, the rash begins 24-72 hr following ingestion and can last for up to 14 days. It resolves spontaneously without any treatment but a doctor can shorten its duration.
Most people are not allergic. Thoroughly cooked shiitakes appear to be OK for everyone.

29 June 2015

Our shiitakes are finally getting going again!



This first small round of bags is showing some signs of heat stress but they are just the beginning. The new fruiting chamber should be able to keep the shiitakes cool enough to stay happy this summer. It just came online within the past few days.

Inside of the new shiitake fruiting chamber

Inside of the new shiitake fruiting chamber

The day before market

Here is a look at a few of the mushrooms that will be going to the Farmer’s Market tomorrow (23 May 2015).

This week the Boonville Farmer’s Market is being held at its regular time from 10-1230 in the Boonville Hotel parking lot followed by a special event at the Madrones in Philo from 1-4.

Three Hericium species will be available this week and the shiitakes are getting closer to fruiting with every passing day.

Hericium americanum (Bear’s head) is winding down. This cycle has been a market-test to see how well people like it so the availability is still limited. If it does well at this weekend’s market I’ll start up another run of it and it will return to production in a few weeks.


Hericium americanum


Hericium americanum


young Hericium americanum

Hericium coralloides (Coral tooth) will be there in very limited numbers for the lucky few people who can grab them first.


Hericium coralloides

And the Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane) will be there of course.


Hericium erinaceus


Hericium erinaceus


Hericium erinaceus

This was the view inside of the fruiting chamber today:


Hericium erinaceus and some americanum


Hericium erinaceus and some americanum


Hericium erinaceus getting started for next week


All three species


Hericium americanum (top) and Hericium erinaceus (below)


Hericium erinaceus


Hericium americanum and Hericium coralloides


Hericium erinaceus and Hericium coralloides

These bags are heading towards being ready for next week:


Hericium erinaceus on supplemented sawdust

And I thought it might be time for another tour inside of the fruiting chamber:


It is not yet clear exactly what tomatoes we will be offering this year but an update will be added as soon as possible.

These are a few images of last year’s tomatoes (summer 2014).

Clackamath Blueberry

Clackamas Blueberry (an F5 tomato)

Clackamath Blueberry

Clackamas Blueberry (an F5 tomato)

Clackamath Blueberry

Clackamas Blueberry (an F5 tomato)

Green Brandy

Green Brandy

Green Brandy

Green Brandy


Green Brandy

Green Brandy

Green Brandy Tomato

Green Brandy

Heirloom pink

Heirloom pink

heirloom pink

heirloom pink

heirloom pink

heirloom pink

Matt's Folly

Matt’s Folly

Matt's Folly

Matt’s Folly

Matt's Folly

Matt’s Folly









Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner) Unripe fruit

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)




Rau răm

AKA “Vietnamese Cilantro”
Polygonum odoratum Lour. — renamed Persicaria odorata (Lour.) Soják

Polygonum odoratum

Polygonum odoratum

Fresh leaves and young stems are used fresh.

Many common names can be encountered online:
Cambodian: Chi krasang tomhom, Chi pong tea koun
Chinese:  香蓼
Chinese [Cantonese]: 越南香菜 (Yuht nàahm hēung choi), also 喇沙葉 (Lāak sāa yihp) [Singapore Cantonese])
Chinese [Mandarin]: 越南香菜 (Yuè nán xiāng cài), 喇沙葉 (Lā shā yè)
Czech: Kokořík vonný
Danish: Vietnamesisk Koriander
English: Asian mint, Cambodian mint, Hot mint, Kesum, Laksa plant, Perennial coriander, Smartweed, Vietnamese coriander, Vietnamese cilantro, Vietnamese mint (this last common name is shared with Kinh Gioi: Elsholtzia ciliata)
French: Coriandre du Vietnam, Persicaire du Vietnam, Renouée odorante
German: Vietnamesischer Koriander, Wohlriechender Knöterich
Hmong: Luam laws
Hungarian: Vietnámi menta
Khmer: Chi krassang tomhom, Xang-hum
Lao: Phak phew/Phak phaew/Phak pheo
Malay: Dawn laksa/Daun laksa, Dawn kesum/Daun kesom [Singapore]
Manipuri [Meitei-Lon]: Phakpai/Phak-Pai
Portuguese: Hortelã-vietnamita
Russian: Купена лекарственная (Kupiena lekarstvennaya), Горец ароматный (Gomets aromatny)
Singapore: Daun kesom, Laksa herb, Laksa leaves, Laksa plant, Laksa yip
Spanish: Culatro de Vietnam, Culatro
Thai: จันทร์โฉม  (Chan chom), หอมจันทน์   (Hom chan)  [Ayutthaya],  ผักไผ่  (Phak phai/Pak pai/Phak pai),  พริกม้า   (Phrik ma)  [Northeastern Thailand], Pa pao
Vietnamese: Rau Râm






Burdock root comes from the Greater Burdock or Arctium lappa.


Burdock (Arctium lappa)

Once grown as a common and popular vegetable in the European Middle Ages, burdock has inexplicably fallen out of popularity in modern times. It is still quite well-loved and eaten throughout Asia.


Brazil: bardana, garduna.
China: ngau pong, niúbàng (牛蒡 ), niu bang zi.
Croatia: čaj od čička, lopuh, lapušina, veliki čičak, veliki ripanj
Czech republic: lopuch větsí.
Denmark: burre.
English-speaking countries: burdock, edible burdock, greater burdock, great burdock, great bur, common burdock, aireve, airup, bachelor’s-buttons (more often applied to Centaurea cyanus), bardane root, bazzies (?), beggar’s button, billy-buttons, bourholm (obsolete), burr seed, clive, clit-bur, great clotbur, clot, clod, cockle-bar, cockle-bur (more often applied to the Xanthium species), cockle-button, cockly-bur, crocklety-bur, cockly, cuckoldy-bur, cuckold-dock, cucklemoors, cuckold-dock, cuckoo-button, eddick (?), edible goberon, flapper-bags, Fox’s clote, happy major, harebur, hardock (also appearing incorrectly as harlock), herrif, hoar-dock, hurr-burr, lappa root, lappa, love leaves, personata, philanthropium. stick-button, sticky buttons, thistle (more often applied to other plants), thorny bur, turkey-bur (name applied to other plants) .
Estonia: suur takjas.
France: glouteron (Codex), artichaut, bardane, bardane comestible, bardane commune, bardane géante, bardane majeure, bardane officinale, bouillon noir, catherinettes, chou d’âne, copeau, croquia, craquia, crakia, grachias, grande bardane, graquias, grateau, gratteau, gratteron, grippe, herbe aux pouilleux, herbe aux seigneurs, herbe aux teigneux, herbe du teigneux, oreille de géant, napolier, pignet, piquant, rapace, rhubarbe du diable, rhubarbe sauvage, rosesbardane, tabac du yâb, toques.
Germany: große klette, dollenkrautwurzel, kleberwurzel, klettendistelwurzel, klettenwurzel, kletten-wurzel, klissenwurzel, rossklettenwurzel.
Hungary: bojtorján.
Italy: bardana, lappa bardana, bardana maggiore.
Japan: gobō (牛蒡 or ゴボウ or ごぼ).
Latin: Bardanae Radix, Radix Arctii, Radix Lappae, Radix Personatae.
Lithuania: varnaléša.
Norway: borre.
Poland: lopian.
Portugal: bardana, orelha-de-gigante
Spain: bardana.
Russia: lapuch, lopuszniek, repiejnik.
Korea: u-eong (우엉)
Serbia: čičak, korijen čička (dried)
Taiwan: 牛蒡
The slender roots can reach 4 feet, and resemble a carrot in shape. Harvesting is typically done when they reach around two feet long. The roots are brown with white flesh that rapidly darkens with exposure to air. That oxidation can also stain fingers so latex gloves might be desired.
Preparation is commonly done using a bowl of acidified water to place pieces into as they get cut. This will help keep them light colored.


Burdock roots can be eaten raw or cooked. They have a mild, earthy flavor that is highly prized for rich soups and stews. The root of burdock is very commonly julienned or sliced thinly.


The immature peeled flower stalks and the young leaves can also be eaten fresh or cooked. Cultivars have been developed specifically for their leaves. The roots are also enjoyed pickled.



Burdock seeds were the inspiration for the invention of Velcro by George de Mestral in the 1940s.



Golden berry

Physalis peruviana



Golden berry (Physalis peruviana)

All plant parts of the golden-berry other than ripe fruit, including the unripe fruit, are considered to be poisonous. The fruit are harvested after their husks have fallen to the ground, but care is needed to be sure that they have turned golden-yellow and are fully ripe. Mature fruit will keep for several months.
The ripe fruit can be eaten fresh out of hand or used in salads and cooked dishes. They are also popular dipped in chocolate or candied or dried into golden “raisins”.

English: pichuberries (USA), Cape gooseberry (South Africa, UK), African ground cherry, Aztec berry, Barbados gooseberry, bladderberry, giant ground cherry, Goldenberry, golden berry,  golden Cape gooseberry, golden husk goldenberry, gooseberry tomato, ground cherry, ground-cherry, groundcherry, Husk Cherry, Inca berry,  love apple, Peruvian cherry, Peruvian groundcherry, Peruvian Ground Cherry, Peruvian cherry, Peruvian tomato, Poha, Poha Berry, strawberry tomato, wild gooseberry, winter cherry. (Not related to any true cherry or true gooseberry.)
French: amour en cage
Italian: alchechengi.
Spanish: uchuva (Colombia)

This plant is originally from Brazil but has become naturalized in Peru and Chile.
It has been cultivated in England and South Africa for more than 200 years. It has become distributed almost worldwide and is regarded to be an invasive pest in frost-free climates such as Hawaii.
It is cultivated in many of the African nations, also in Turkey, India, Australia, New Zealand, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Chile, and Peru.

It was reported to be potentially harmful to the heart health of men if they consume massive quantities of the fruit (>5 kg of fruit per kg of body weight). This does not appear to pose a significant risk factor as people always ingest far less.















Plugging Logs

Plugging logs is nowhere near as efficient as growing mushrooms using spawn bags but it is within more people’s reach. Logs also have an advantage of lasting longer so make a nice complement to our bag production.

Holes are best drilled using a high-speed drill and a stop.

There are a couple of different tools for this.

Shiitake drill (10,000 rpm)

high-speed shiitake drill

high-speed shiitake drill

The Hitachi Koki DW12SA (S) is a specialty tool that was made by Hitachi for the shiitake industry.

It can sometimes be difficult to obtain outside of Japan but Japanese people can help obtain one by serving as a reshipper. A number of people do this as a commercial service. Acquiring it can cost about the same as the price of the drill once factoring in all of the postage. SOMETIMES companies exist which resell this item so it is worth checking if anyone is presently doing this.


High-speed modified drill

high-speed drill using angle grinder

high-speed drill using angle grinder

An angle grinder (10,000 rpm) can be obtained from any hardware store.

An angle adaptor and a drill bit with a stop can be obtained from Field and Forest that will turn it into a high-speed shiitake drill.

That same company also sells this as a complete set including the angle grinder.

This costs in the ball park of the price for the shiitake drill in Japan.



Tools & supplies:

high-speed drill 

bit with stop sized for media choice (the shiitake drill has a built-in stop; drill bits that include stops are convenient). 12mm for sawdust media. 10.5mm for plugs.

inoculation tool for sawdust or a hammer for plugs.

bowl or container to hold sawdust media or plugs while working

wax dauber

wax pot

hot plate

eye protection


metal plant tags

writing implement




Hericium rajendrae

[Newly described in 2019. The description included molecular work.]

Quercus sp. (oak) “living tree-trunk” Singh & Das 2019 (Uttarakhand, India)

“  This species is mainly characterized by reddish white to pale red coloured basidiomata, concolorous spines with acute to sub-acute or rounded apex, pleasant odour, monomitic hyphal system, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid minutely warty basidiospores, abundant gloeocystidia with rounded to acute apex and occurrence on the tree-trunk of living broadleaf tree.”

Singh & Das 2019

Hericium yumthangense

Hericium yumthangense
[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. The description included molecular work.]

Abies densa (Sikkim fir) “attached to living host” Das et al. 2013 (Sikkim, India).


Hericium schestunovii

Hericium schestunovii

[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. Molecular work not located.]

Quercus pedunculata (a synonym for Q. robur) Nikolaeva 1961: 238. (USSR; 55.000000°; 40.000000°).

[Nikolajeva, 1961, Flora plantarum cryptogamarum URSS. Fungi. Familia Hydnaceae 6(2): 238, INV; bas.: Hydnum schestunovii Nikolajeva.]

Hydnum schestunovii Nikol. 1949, Notulae systematicae Instuti cryptogamica Horti botanici Petropolis: 87

Named for the botanist N. Schestunov.

Unable to access the original description. 

From The Red Book of Russia at Mycology.su:

  Said to have fruiting bodies consisting of tiled caps with an irregular semicircular shape.
   Non-amyloid spores.

Does not appear to have ever been reported a second time.

Hericium rajchenbergii

Hericium rajchenbergii
[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. The description included molecular work.]

Lithraea molleoides (aroeira-branca) “dead standing” Hallenberg et al. 2012 (Córdoba province, Colón Department, Argentina).

Lithraea sp. “fallen log” Hallenberg et al. 2012 (Córdoba province, Colón Department, Argentina)



Abrego et alia 2017. Fungal Ecology, 27: 168–174. Understanding the distribution of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech reserves from species-specific habitat models.

Afyon et alia 2004. Turkish Journal of Botany, 28: 351–360. Macrofungi of Sinop Province.

Afyon et alia 2009. Mycotaxon, 93: 319–322. A study of wood decaying macrofungi of the western Black Sea Region, Turkey.

Ahmad et al. 1997. Fungi of Pakistan.(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Aho & Filip 1982. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 12(3): 705–708. Incidence of wounding and Echinodontium tinctorium infection in advanced white fir regeneration.
(This citation appears to be erroneous.)

ALA = Atlas of Living Australia [https://www.ala.org.au/] Link confirmed 17 Mar. 2019.]

Albee-Scott 2007. Mycological Research, 111(6): 653–662. The phylogenetic placement of the Leucogastrales, including Mycolevis siccigleba (Cribbeaceae), in the Albatrellaceae using morphological and molecular data. 

Alfieri et alia 1984. Florida Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind. Bull. 11. Index of Plant Diseases in Florida (Revised).
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Allen et alia 1996 & 2007. Common Tree Diseases of British Columbia, 38–39. Heart rots: Yellow pitted rot. (Hericium abietis).

Anonymous 1960. USDA Agricultural Handbook, 165: 1–531. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States.

Anonymous 1964. Diseases of widely planted forest trees. From an FAO-UN symposium. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.
(From USDA ARS GRIN; Not presently accessible.)

Anonymous 2014. USDA, Forest Service, Alaska Division, RG-209. Mushrooms of the National Forests in Alaska.

Arnolds 2001. In Moore et alia Fungal Conservation. Issues and Solutions. pages 64–80. The future of fungi in Europe: threats, conservation and management. (Digital version was in 2008.)

Astapenko 1990 [as Астапенко, В.В.]. Консортивные связи дереворазрушающих грибов в Среднем Приангарье [Symbiotic relations of wood-destroying fungi in the middle Angara river region]. Микология и Фитопатология [Mycology & Phytopathology] 24(4): 289–298.
(From Cybertruffle 2016. Not presently accessible.)

Astapenko & Kutafyeva 1990 [as Астапенко, В.В.; Кутафьева, Н.П.]. Консортивные связи макромицетов с видами рода Betula L. [Symbiotic relationships of larger fungi with species of Betula L.]. Микология и Фитопатология [Mycology & Phytopathology] 24(1): 3–9.
(From Cybertruffle 2016. Not presently accessible.) 

ATCC product information, data gleaned from within individual entries at http://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Fungi_and_Yeast/Fungi_and_Yeast_Alphanumeric.aspx [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Atila et alia 2018. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology & Food Sciences, 7 (5) 532–536. Genetic Diversity of Hericium isolates by ISSRR and SRAP Markers.

Atlas of Living Australia website. Hericium reported from Australia [https://biocache.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Hericium] and images [https://bie.ala.org.au/species/2ec3db20-d8b2-4ea8-b0e2-b38e7b09507f#gallery] [Links confirmed 17 March 2019]

Balfour-Browne 1968. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany, 4: 7–141. Fungi of recent Nepal expeditions.

Banker 1906. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club, 12(2): 99–192. A contribution to a revision of the North American Hydnaceae.

Basham 1958. Canadian Journal of Botany, 36: 491–505. Decay of trembling aspen.

Berkeley 1860. Outlines of British Fungology, Vol. 2. pages 257–261. Hydnum.

Berry 1969. USDA, Forest Service, Research paper NE-126, Decay in the Upland Oak Stands of Kentucky.

Berry & Beaton 1972. USDA, Forest Service, Report NE-242, Decay in Oak in the Central Hardwood Region.

Berry & Lombard 1978. Forest Service Research Paper NE-413, Basidiomycetes Associated with Decay of Living Oak Trees. 

Binion et alia 2008. Macrofungi associated with oaks of eastern North America.
(From Glaeser & Smith 2013. Not presently accessible.)

BCRC = Bioresource Collection and Research Center; Taiwan Fungal Flora Knowledge [http://www.bcrc.firdi.org.tw/fungi/index.jsp] [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Bisko et alia 2016. IBK Mushroom Culture Collection.

Boddy et alia 2011. Fungal Ecology, 4: 163–173. Ecology of Hericium cirrhatum, H. coralloides, and H. erinaceus in the UK.

Bondartseva et alia 1998. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 33: 19—24. Aphyllophoroid fungi of old and primeval forests in the Kotavaara site of North Karelian biosphere reserve.

Boudier 1905. Icones mycologicae ou Iconographie des champignons de France principalement Discomycetes, Vol. 1, plate 166; Vol. 4, page 85. 

Bourdot & Galzin 1927. Hymènomycètes de France, pages 452—454. Dryodon.

BPI n/a. National Fungus Collections. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Brambilla & Sutton 1969. Host Index of Species Deposited in the Mycological Herbarium (WINF/M) of the Forest Research Laboratory, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Bresadola 1906. I Funghi Mangerecci e velenosi dell Europa Media, vol. 2, 112–113.

Buckland et alia 1949. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27: 312–331. Studies in forest pathology. VII. Decay in western hemlock and fir in the Franklin River area British Columbia.

Bulliard 1780. Herbier de la France, 1: page 304 & plate 34. HYDNE hérisson. HYDNUM erinaceus.

Bulliard 1791. Histoire des champignons de la France, vol. 1, p. 304, plate 34, HYDNE hérisson. HYDNUM erinaceus.

Burdsall et alia 1978. Mycotaxon, 7(1): 1–9. Morphological and Mating System Studies of a New Taxon of Hericium (Aphyllophorales—Hericiaceae) from the Southern Appalachians. 

Burova 1968 [as Бурова, Л.Г.]. Макромицеты парцелл елово-широколиственных лесов Подмосковья (на примере липо-ельника зеленчуково-волосистого [Macromycetes of spruce-deciduous forests parcels in Moscow region (using as an example of lime-spruce forest with Galeobdolon and Carex pilosa)]. Миколог.
(From Cybertruffle 2016. Not presently accessible.) 

BVN 2009. Bow Valley Naturalist Newsletter, Fall.

CABI Index of Fungi, at http://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/online-information-resources/index-of-fungi/ [Link confirmed 17 March 2018.]

Callan 1998. Diseases of Populus in British Columbia: a diagnostic manual.

Campbell et alia 1950. Plant Disease Reporter, 34: 128–134. Notes on some wood-decaying fungi of Georgia.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Cardoso et alia 1992. Cryptogamia Botanica, 2: 395–404. Aphyllophorales of Peneda-Geres National Park (Portugal).

Cash 1953. The Plant Disease Reporter. Supplement 219. A Check List of Alaskan Fungi.

Chen 2002. Forest fungi phytogeography: Forest fungi phytogeography of China, North America, and Siberia and international quarantine of tree pathogens. (From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Chen 2003. Forest fungi phytogeography: Forest fungi phytogeography of China, North America, and Siberia and international quarantine of tree pathogens. 

Chen et alia 2016. Persoonia, 37, 21–36. Global diversity and molecular systematics of Wrightoporia s.l. (Russulales, Basidiomycota).
(Paper included six Hericium species.)

Chevallier 1826. Flore générale des environs de Paris, 1: 270–279. Hydnum.

Colenso 1889. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 21: 43–80. A description of some newly-discovered cryptogamic plants; being a further contribution towards the making known the botany of New Zealand. Pages 79–80: Hydnum novae-zealandiae. [Spelling can sometimes be found amended to novae-zelandiae.]

Conkers 1935. Forest Insect Disease Survey. Canada Department Forestry, Annual District Report 14. (From Conners 1967. Not presently accessible.)

Conners 1967. Canada Department of Agriculture, Research Branch Publ. 1251. An Annotated Index of Plant Diseases in Canada and fungi recorded on plants in Alaska, Canada and Greenland.

Cooke 1871. Handbook of British Fungi, vol. 1, page 297. Hydnum coralloides, erinaceus & caputmedusae.

Cybertruffle’s Robigalia online. Observations of fungi and their associated organisms, at http://www.cybertruffle.org.uk/robigalia/eng/index.htm [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Dai et alia 2009. Mycosystema, 29(1):1–21. A revised checklist of edible fungi in China.

Das & Sharma 2009–2010. Kavaka, (37–38): 17–19. Hericium cirrhatum (Pers.) Nikol.; A new record to Indian mycoflora.

Das et alia 2011. Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 32(3): 285–293. A new species of Hericium from Sikkim Himalaya (India).

Das et alia 2013. IMA Fungus, 4(2): 359–369. Two new species of hydnoid-fungi from India.

DAVFP Collections Database Pacific Forestry Centre’s Forest Pathology Herbarium, at http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/herbarium [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Davidson et alia 1942. USDA Technical Bulletin 785, Fungi Causing Decay of Living Oaks in the Eastern United States and Their Cultural Identification.

Day & Nair ND. Host-Fungus Index of Wisconsin. http://www.uwgb.edu/biodiversity/resources/host-fungus-index/ [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Doğan & Öztürk 2006. Turkish Journal of Botany, 30: 193–207. Macrofungi and Their Distribution in Karaman Province, Turkey.

Doğan et alia 2005. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 37(2): 459–485. A Checklist of Aphyllophorales of Turkey.

Doll 1979. Feddes Repertorium, 90(1–2): 103–120. Die Verbreitung der gestielten Stachelpilze sowie das Vorkommen von Hericium, Creolophus cirrhatus, Spongipellis pachyodon, und Sistotrema confluens in Mecklenburg.

Domański et alia 1960. Monographiae Botanicae, 10(2): 150–237. Mycoflore Bieszczady Occidentales (Wetlina 1958).

Domański et alia 1960. Monographiae Botanicae, volume 15. Mikoflora Bieszadów Zachodnich. II. (Ustrzyki Górne, 1960).

Dudka et al. 2004. Fungi of the Crimean Peninsula. (Translated from Russian)
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

ECCF (European Council for Conservation of Fungi) 2001. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. T-PVS 34: page 21. Datasheets of threatened mushrooms of Europe, candidates for listing in Appendix I of the Convention. 

Ellett 1989. OSU, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Special Circular 128, Ohio Plant Disease Index.

EMBL (European Molecular Biology Laboratory) 2019. Geographically tagged INSDC sequences. Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/cndomv accessed via GBIF.org on 2019-02-20. https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1941096220. See also entry at ENA (European Nucleotide Archive) https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/LC062612
 [Links confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Eslyn 1962. Iowa Forest Science, 8: 263–276. Basidiomycetes and decay in silver maple stands of central Iowa.

Eslyn & Lombard 1983. Forest Product Journal, 33: 19–23. Decay in mine timbers. Part II. Basidiomycetes associated with decay of coal mine timbers. 

Eslyn & Lombard 1984. Mycologia, 76: 548–550. Fungi associated with decayed wood in stored willow and cottonwood logs.

Filip et alia 1984. Plant Diseases, 68: 992–993. Substantial decay in Pacific silver fir caused by Hericium abietis.

Filip et alia 1995. Manual 9. Forest Disease, Ecology & Management in Oregon.

French 1989. California Plant Disease Host Index.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Gilbertson et alia 1974. University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, 209: 1–48. Annotated check list and host index for Arizona wood-rotting fungi.

Ginns 1984. Mycotaxon, 20(1): 39–43. Hericium coralloides N. Amer. auct. H. americanum, and the European H. alpestre and H. coralloides.

Ginns 1985. Canadian Journal of Botany, 63(9): 1551–1563. Hericium in North America, cultural characteristics and mating behavior.

Ginns 1986. Research Board of Canadian Agriculture Publication 1813. Compendium of plant disease and decay fungi in Canada 1960–1980.

Gizhytska 1929 [as Гіжицька, З.К.]. Матеріяли до мікофльори України. Вісник Київського Ботанічного саду [Bulletin of the Kiev Botanic Garden] 10: 4–41.
(From Cybertruffle 2016. Not presently accessible.)

Glaeser & Smith 2010. Western Arborist, 32–46. Decay fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists.

Glaeser & Smith 2013. Western Arborist, 40–51. Decay fungi of riparian trees in the Southwestern U.S.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) at http://www.gbif.org) [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Global Catalogue of Microorganisms, at http://gcm.wfcc.info [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Global Fungal Red List Initiative, at http://iucn.ekoo.se/iucn/species_view/120231 [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Grand 1985. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Technical Bulletin, 240: 1–157. North Carolina Plant Disease Index. (From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Gray 1821. A Natural Arrangement of British plants, page 651: erinaceus; page 652: coralloides.

Groves 1981. Champignons comestibles et vénéneux du Canada.

Gulden & Stordal 1973. Blyttia, 31: 103–127. Om stilkete och kjukeformele piggsopper i Norge.
(From Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988. Not presently accessible.)

Hallenberg 1983. Mycotaxon, 18(1): 181–189. Hericium coralloides and H. alpestre (Basidiomycetes) in Europe.

Hallenberg et alia 2012. Mycological Progress, 12(2): 413–420. Species complexes in Hericium (Russulales, Agaricomycota) and a new species —Hericium rajchenbergii — from southern South America.

Haller 1768. Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae, vol. 3, page 148. ECHINUS ramosus, aculeis parallelis.

Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003. Hericium Tooth Fungi.

Hanlin 1966. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station, Mimeo Series, n. s., 260: 1–30. Host index to the Basidiomycetes of Georgia.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Hansen & Vesterholt 2002. Rødlistede svampe i Storstrøms Amt 2001. Page 135: Creolophus cirrhatus; 138: Hericium erinaceum; 174: Hericium coralloides.

Harrison 1961. The Stipitate Hydnums of Nova Scotia.

Harrison 1973. Michigan Botanist, 12: 177–194. The Genus Hericium in North America.

Harrison 1984. Mycologia, 76: 1121–1123. Creolophus in North America.

Henderson 1981. Trial field key to TOOTHED FUNGI in the Pacific Northwest. (Pacific Northwest Key Council), at http://www.svims.ca [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Heredia 1989. Acta Botánica Mexicana, 7: 1–18. Estudio de los hongos de la reserva de la biosfera el cielo, tamaulipas consideraciones sobre da distribucion y ecologia de alguinas especies.
(This was apparently a mis-citation by USDA.)

Hermansson 1997. Windahlia, 22: 67–79. Polyporaceae s. lat. and some other fungi in Pechora-Ilych Zapovednik, Russia. (From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Hibbett et alia 2000. Nature, 407: 506–508. Evolutionary instability of ectomycorrhizal symbioses in basidiomycetes.

Horst 2013. Westcott’s Plant Disease Handbook, pages 489–490. Hericium erinaceus.

Hubregtse 2018. Fungi in Australia. Part 4. Basidiomycota, Agaricomycotina – II, pages 226—227 & Part 9. Photographic guide to non-gilled fungi, page 20. Hericium coralloides.

Hyams 1900. North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts Bulletin, 177: 27–77. Edible mushrooms of North Carolina.

Index Species Fungorum, accessed via CABI at http://www.speciesfungorum.org and Kew http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp [Links confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Jussieu ex Barrelier 1714. Plantae per Galliam Hispaniam et Italiam observatae iconibus aeneis exhibitae, page 118, fig. 1257. Fungus ramos. Abietin niveus

Karadelev 1993. Fungi Macedonici, I. Contribution to the knowledge of wood-destroying fungi in the Republic of Macedonia. 

Karun & Sridhar 2016. Studies in Fungi, 1(1): 135–141. Two new records of hydnoid fungi from the Western Ghats of India.

Kaya 2009. Turkish Journal of Botany, 33: 429–437. Macrofungi of Huzurlu high plateau (Gaziantep-Turkey).

Karadzic 2006. Glasnik Sumarskog fakulteta, 93: 83–96. Contribution to the study of fungi in the genera Sparassis Fr. and Hericium Pers. in our forests Dragan,

Keizer 2008. De soorten van het leefgebiedenbeleid, 55–57, (Chapter 14) Echte Pruikzwam Hericium Erinaceum (Bull. ; Fr.) Pers.

Kew Gardens, at http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/hericium-erinaceus-bearded-tooth [Link was 404 on 9 Dec 2018.]

Kimmey & Stevenson 1957. The Plant Disease Reporter, Supplement 247, 87–98. A Forest Disease Survey of Alaska.

Kobayashi 2007. Index of fungi inhabiting woody plants in Japan. Host, Distribution and Literature. (From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988. Karstenia, 27: 43–70. Hydnaceous fungi of the Hericiaceae, Auriscalpiaceae and Climacodontaceae in northwestern Europe.

Kreisel 1987. Pilzflora der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Basidiomycetes (Gallert-, Hut- und Bauchpilze).
(From Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988. Not presently accessible.)

Kroeger & Berch 2017. British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, Technical Report, TR108. Macrofungus Species of British Columbia.

Kunca & Čiliak 2015. Czech Mycology, 67(1): 95–118. Abstracts of the International Symposium Fungi of Central European Old-Growth Forests, page 107. Ecology, incidence and indication value of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia and the Western Carpathians.

Kunca & Čiliak 2017. Data in Brief, 12: 156–160. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia.

Kunca & Čiliak 2017. Fungal Ecology, 27(B): 189–192. Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia.

Kunca et alia 2018. Czech Mycology,70(2): 211–224. Fruitbody production of Hericium erinaceus and its distribution in Slovakia.

Kuo. Michael Kuo’s Mushroom Expert website: http://www.mushroomexpert.com [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Lacheva 2014. International Journal of Microbiology and Mycology, 2(3): 37–48. A case study on wood decaying macrofungi in the Southwestern slopes of Vasilyovska Mountain, Forebalkan, Bulgaria.

Lai K (2012). The National Checklist of Taiwan. Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF). (http://taibnet.sinica.edu.tw) [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Larsson & Larsson 2003. Mycologia, 95(6): 1037–1065. Phylogenetic relationships of russuloid basidiomycetes with emphasis on aphyllophoralean taxa.

Laursen & Seppelt 2009. Common Interior Alaska Cryptogams, pages 88–89.  Hericium coralloides.

Lawrence & Hiratsuka 1972. Northern Forest Research Centre, Information Report NOR-X-27. Forest fungi collected in Yoho National Park, British Columbia. 

Letellier 1826. Histoire et Description des Champignons. 112–113: Hericium caput medusae; 113–114: Hericium erinaceus; 114–115: Hericium coralloides. 

Lindsey & Gilbertson 1978. Bibliotheca Mycologica, 63. Basidiomycetes that decay aspen in North America.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Lisiewska 2006. Acta Mycologica, 41(2): 241–252. Endangered macrofungi of selected nature reserves in Wielkopolska.

Lowe 1969. Canadian Forest Service, Victoria, Report B-X-32. Check list and host index of bacteria, fungi, and mistletoes of British Columbia.

Lowe 1977. Can. Forestry Service, Victoria. Report BC-X-32. (From Ginns 1986.]

Maas Geesteranus 1959. Persoonia, 1(1): 115–147. The stipitate Hydnums of the Netherlands — IV. 

MacKay 1904. Proceedings and Transactions of the Nova Scotia Institute of Science, 12: 119–138. Fungi of Nova Scotia: a provisional list.

Magasi 1966. Canadian Forest Service, Fredericton. Report M—X—7. Index to the Forest Fungi of the Maritimes Region.

Mallams et alia 2010. USDA, Forest Insect & Disease Leaflet 53. Decays of White, Grand, and Red Firs.

Maloy 1968. Plant Disease Reporter, 52: 489–492. Decay fungi in young grand fir. (From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Manaaki Whenus Landcare Research Databases — Ngā Harore o Aotearoa – New Zealand Fungi,
https://nzfungi2.landcareresearch.co.nz/default.aspx?selected=NameDetails&Action=Display&CancelScript=1&TabNum=0&NameId=7A6A7650-0256-4DB9-A9B5-9120C935A612&StateId=&Sort=0 [Links confirmed on 17 March 2019.]
Their link to was unresponsive.]

Maneval 1937. University of Missouri Studies, Sci. Ser. 12. A List of the Missouri Fungi.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Marchand 1975–1976. Champignons du Nord et du Midi. Vol. 3.  (From Rastetter 1985; Not presently accessible.)

Martin & Gilbertson 1980. Mycotaxon, 10(2): 479–501. Synopsis of wood-rotting fungi on spruce in North America: III.

Massee 1892. British Fungus Flora, vol. 1. Pages 156–157: Hericium coralloides; 157: Hericium erinaceum; 157: Hericium caput-medusae.

McArthur 1966. Canadian Forest Research Laboratory, Calgary, Alberta. Information Report A-X-4. A list of specimens deposited in the mycological herbarium of the Forest Research Laboratory, Calgary, Alberta.

Merino Alcántara 2011. Micobotánica Jaén, 4 pages. Hericium alpestre. at http://www.micobotanicajaen.com/Revista/Articulos/DMerinoA/Aportaciones023/Hericium%20alpestre.pdf [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Merino Alcántara 2014. Micobotánica Jaén, 2 pages. Hericium erinaceus. At http://www.micobotanicajaen.com/Revista/Articulos/DMerinoA/Aportaciones023/HericiumErinaceus.pdf  [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Michel 2007. Contribution à la connaissance de la fonge lignicole du site de Saint-Daumas, page 24.

Micheli 1729. Nova plantarum genera juxta Tournafortii methodum disposita, page 122. Agaricum esculentum, album, cespitosum, multifidum & denticulatum, denticulis asperis.

Miller 1935. Mycologia, 27(4): 357–373. The Hydnaceae of Iowa. IV. The Genera Steccherinum, Auriscalpium, Hericium, Dentinum and Calodon.

Miller et alia 2006. Mycologia, 98(6): 960–970. Perspectives in the new Russulales.

Mir et alia 2017. Micobotánica-Jaén, 12(2): ONLINE. Aportación al Catálogo Micológico de las Illes Balears. Menorca, III. See at http://www.micobotanicajaen.com/Revista/Articulos/JLMelis/MenorcaIII/APORTACION%20AL%20CATALOGO%20MICOLOGICO%20III%20v2r.pdf  [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Molina et alia 1993. USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-309. Biology, Ecology, and Social Aspects of Wild Edible Mushrooms in the Forests of the Pacific Northwest: A Preface to Managing Commercial Harvest.

Molnar 1956. Annual Report of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey, 1956, 87–91. Province of British Columbia. Forest Disease Survey.

Monica 2014. http://www.monicanetwork.dxnitaly.com [Link was 404 on 9 Dec 2018.] [also www.retestatic.it/download.php?f=307416.pdf (Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.)]

Morel Mushroom Hunting Club (i.e. Chris Matherly), at www.morelmushroomhunting.com/herricium_coralloides_var_rosea.htm  [Link was 404 on 9 Dec 2018. Possibly moved to paid-access only?] [As herricium [sic] coralloides var. rosea.]

Mori et alia 2008. Phytotherapy Research, 23(3): 367–372. Improving Effects of the Mushroom Yamabushitake, Hericium erinaceus, on Mild Cognitive Impairment; A Double blind Placebo controlled Clinical Trial.
And also in
Mori et alia 2008. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 31 (9): 1727–1732. Nerve Growth Factor Inducing Activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 Human Astrocytoma Cells.

Mycobank at http://www.mycobank.org/name/Hericium%20erinaceum&Lang=Eng)  [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Mycology.su (The Red Book of Russia Plants), at https://mycology.su/category/fungi/basidiomycota/agaricomycetes/russulales/hericiaceae/hericium  Род: Гериций (Hericium) [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Mycoweb, at http://www.mykoweb.com [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Nakasone 1996. in McMinn et alia USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report, GTR-SE94, Biodiversity and Coarse woody Debris in Southern Forests. pages 35–42: Diversity of Lignicolous Basidiomycetes in Coarse Woody Debris.

Nanagulian & Senn-Irlet 2002. Some Dates [sic] About Distribution and Conservation of Threatened Mushrooms in Armenia.

Natural Resources Canada 2015. Yellow pitted rot. https://tidcf.nrcan.gc.ca/en/diseases/factsheet/1000025  [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Nikolajeva 1961. Flora plantarum cryptogamarum URSS. Fungi. Familia Hydnaceae, 6(2): 1–432. Page 238: Hericium schestunovii.
(Cited by many references; book is not presently accessible.) Николаева Т. Л. Флора споровых растений СССР. Том VI. Ежовиковые грибы. Грибы (2). — М. – Л.: Издательство Академии наук СССР, 1961. — 433 с; NIKOLAEVA, Taisiya Lvovna (1961). In: SAVIČ V. (ed.), Флора споровых растений СССР [Flora plantarum cryptogamarum URSS 6. Fungi 2. Familia Hydnaceae]. 6(2): 1–432 . Moscow; Leningrad

Nordin 1954. Canadian Journal of Botany, 32(1): 221–258. Studies in Forest Pathology. XIII. Decay in Sugar Maple in the Otttowa-Huron and Algoma Extension Forest Region of Ontario.

Nuß 1973. Westfälische Pilzbriefe, 9: 130–134. Über die Verbreitung des Alpen-Stachelbartes (Hericium coralloides) in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

Oudemans 1919–1924. Enumeratio systematica Fungorum.

Ostry et alia 2011. USDA, Forest Service. GTR-79. Field Guide to Common Macrofungi in Eastern Forests and Their Ecosystem Functions.

Otani (ex Ito) 1957. Journal of Japanese Botany [Shokubutsu Kenkyu Zasshi], 32(10): 303–306. On a new species of Hericium found in Japan.

Pallua et alia 2012. Analyst, 137: 1584–1595. Morphological and tissue characterization of the medicinal fungus Hericium coralloides by a structural and molecular imaging platform.

Parris 1959. Mississippi State University, Botany Department Miscellaneous Publication 1. A revised host index of Mississippi plant diseases.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Park et alia 2014. Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 14(4): 816–821. Molecular Identification of Asian Isolates of Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceum, by Phylogenetic Analysis of Nuclear ITS rDNA. 

Paulet 1793. Traite des champignons, vol. 2, pages 424–428. 

Pegler 2003. Mycologist, 17(3): 120–121. Useful fungi of the world: the monkey head fungus.

Persoon 1794. (In Roemer’s) Neues Magazin für die Botanik, pages 151 & 153, page 153: erinaceus.

Persoon 1797. Commentatio de Fungis Clavaeformibus, page 27: erinaceus.

Persoon 1801. Synopsis Methodica Fungorum, page 560: erinaceus.

Persoon 1818. Traite sur les Champignons Comestibles. (Typo erinaceum appears on page 251). 

Persoon 1825. Mycologia Europaea, volume 2, page 153: erinaceus.

Pilley & Trieselmann 1969. Canadian Forestry Service, Sault Ste Marie. Report O-X-108. A synoptic catalogue of cryptogams deposited in the Ontario region herbarium II. Basidiomycetes.

Pollini 1824. Flora Veronensis quam in prodromum flora, vol. 3. pages 595–597.

Pomerleau 1980. Flore des champignons au Québec et régions limitrophes. (From Ginns 1986. Not presently accessible.)

Preston & Dosdall 1955. USDA, Plant Disease Epidemiology & Identification Section, Spec. Publ. 8. Minnesota Plant Diseases.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Rastetter 1983. Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, 2: 161–188. Fünfter Beitrag zur Pilzflora des Oberelsaß.

Rea 1922. British Basidiomycetae: a handbook to the larger British Fungi.

Red Book of the Novosibirsk region 2018. [Красная книга Новосибирской области 2018]
(From Mycology.su. Not presently accessible.)

Red Book of Russia. Plants; Красная Книга России, at http://biodat.ru/db/rbp/rb.php?src=1&vid=527 [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Roger’s mushrooms, at http://www.rogersmushrooms.com [Server not responding in Nov. 2018 and Jan. 2019. Apparently now exists as a phone app.]

Rupcic et alia 2018. International Journal of Molecular Science, 2018, 19, 740, 12 pages. Two New Cyathane Diterpenoids from Mycelial Cultures of the Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus and the Rare Species, Hericium flagellum.

Safonov 1999 [as Сафонов, М.А.]. Трутовые грибы (Polyporaceae s.lato) лесов Оренбургской области [Polyporous fungi (Polyporaceae s. lato) from forests of Orenburg oblast]. Микология и Фитопатология [Mycology & Phytopathology] 33(2): 75–80. (From Cybertruffle 2016. Not presently accessible.)

Safonov 2014. European Researcher, 83(9–2): 1671–1676. Wood-destroying Basidiomycetes found on the elder woods in the South Urals (Orenburg Oblast, Russia).

Schmid-Heckel 1988. Forschungsberichte Nationalpark Berchtesgaden, 15: 1–136. Pilze in den Berchtesgadener Alpen.

Shaw 1973. Washington Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 756. Host fungus index for the Pacific Northwest — 1. Hosts. (From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Sikora & Neubauer 2015. Chrońmy Przyrodę Ojczystą, 71(5): 368–379. Nowe stanowiska i występowanie soplówki jeżowatej. Hericium erinaceus w Polsce.

Siller et alia 2005. Studia Botanica Hungarica, 36: 131–163. Hungarian Distribution of the Legally Protected Macrofungi Species.

Singh et alia 2017. Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology, 7(3): 208–226. Wild edible mushrooms from high elevations in the Garhwal Himalaya—II.

Singh & Das 2019. Nova Hedwigia, 108(3–4): 505–515. Hericium rajendrae sp. nov. (Hericiaceae, Russulales): an edible mushroom from Indian Himalaya. 

Slippers et alia 2000. Mycologia 92(5): 955–963. Relationships among Amylostereum species associated with siricid woodwasps inferred from mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences.
[Included Hericium ramosum only as an outlier; gave no indication as to its point of origin.] 

Snowarski 1997–2019. Grzyby Polski:  Creolophus cirrhatus: https://www.grzyby.pl/gatunki/Creolophus_cirrhatus.htm,  Hericium coralloides: https://www.grzyby.pl/gatunki/Hericium_coralloides.htm; Hericium erinaceus: https://www.grzyby.pl/gatunki/Hericium_erinaceum.htm; Hericium flagellum: https://www.grzyby.pl/gatunki/Hericium_flagellum.htm.

Sokół et alia 2016. Acta Mycology, 50(2): article 1069. 18-pages. Biology, cultivation and medicinal functions of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum.

Stalpers 1992. Persoonia, 14(4): 537–541. Albatrellus and the Hericiaceae.

Stalpers 1996. Studies in Mycology, 40. The Aphyllophoraceous fungi. — II. Keys to the species of the Hericiales.

Stasińska 1999. Acta Mycologica, 34(1): 125–168. Macromycetes in forest communities of the Insko Landscape Park (NW Poland).

Sterbeeck 1675. Theatrum Fungorum oft Tooneel der Campernoelien, pages 254–255. [as = Cornu cervi calcinatum.]

Stevenson 1886. British Fungi, vol. 2. 239–240: Hericium coralloides; 240: Hericium erinaceum; 240: Hericium caput-medusae.

Stevenson 2016. Wild Edible Food. https://www.ediblewildfood.com/blog/2016/10/lions-mane-edible-and-medicinal-fungi/ [Link confirmed 12 April 2019.]

Sultana & Qreshi 2007. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39 (7): 2629–2649. Check List of Basidiomycetes (Aphyllo. and Phragmo.) of Kaghan Valley-11.

Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006. A Field Guide to Insects and Diseases of California Oaks, (USDA PSW GTR-197), pp. 99–101. Hedgehog mushroom, Hericium erinaceus f. erinaceus.

Tai 1979. Sylloge Fungorum Sinicorum.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Tanchaud 2011. Hericium cirrhatum, at www.mycocharentes.fr/pdf1/82%20115%201%20.pdf [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Tanchaud 2015. Hericium clathroides, at https://www.mycocharentes.fr/pdf1/1747.pdf  [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Tanchaud 2018. Hericium cirrhatum, at https://www.mycocharentes.fr/pdf1/2206.pdf  [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Teng 1996. Fungi of China.
(From Cybertruffle 2016 & USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Thind & Khara 1975. Indian Phytopathology, 28: 57–65. The Hydnaceae of the North Western Himalayas–II.
(From Karun & Sridhar 2016. Not presently accessible.)

Thomas & Podmore 1953. Canadian Journal of Botany, 31: 675–697. Studies in Forest Pathology. XI. Decay in Black Cottonwood in the Middle Fraser Region, British Columbia.

Thongbai et alia 2015. Mycological Progress, 14:91 (23 pages) Review: Hericium erinaceus, an amazing medicinal mushroom.

Tidwell 1990. Index of Diseases and Microorganisms Associated with Eucalyptus in California.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Tortič 1998. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 33: 139—146. An attempt to a list of indicator fungi (Aphyllophorales) for old forests of beech and fir in former Yugoslavia.

Trattinnick 1805. Fungi Austriaci, 191–196. XXV. Hydnum erinaceus Bull.

Trout 2004–2015. “Local observation” was for environs of Boonville, Philo & Yorkville, in Anderson Valley, Mendocino County, California.

Turland et alia (eds.) 2018: International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017. Regnum Vegetabile 159. 

Urban 2015. Czech Mycology, 67(1): 95–118. Abstracts of the International Symposium Fungi of Central European Old-Growth Forests, page 117. Substrate specificity does matter — macro-fungal succession on coarse woody debris in an old-growth oak forest.

USDA ARS GRIN Fungal Databases. Information gleaned via individual species name searches at https://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/nomen/new_frameNomenclatureReport.cfm [Link confirmed 21 Feb 2019.]

Van Hook 1922. Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science, 1921: 143–148. Indiana Fungi — VI.

pastedGraphic.pngVarstvo gozdov / Boletus informaticus, at http://www.zdravgozd.si [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Volk et alia 1994. Mycotaxon, 52(1): 1–46. Checklist and Host Index of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi of Alaska

Wald et alia 2004. Mycological Research, 108(12): 1447–1457. Interspecific interactions between the rare tooth fungi, Creolophus cirrhatus, Hericium erinaceus and H. coralloides, and other wood decay species in agar and wood.

Wehmeyer 1950. Fungi of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

Yurchenko 2002. Mycena, 2(1): 31–68. Non-poroid aphyllophoraceous fungi proposed to the third edition of the Red Data Book of Belarus. [Hericium coralloides: pages 47—50.]

Zervakis et alia 1998. Mycotaxon, 66: 273–336. A check-list of the Greek macrofungi including hosts and biogeographic distribution: I. Basidiomycotina.

Ziller 1957. Fungi of British Columbia deposited in the herbarium of the Forest Biology Laboratory, Victoria, B.C., Canada. (From Conners 1967. Not presently accessible.)

Ziller 1961. Interim Report. Forest Entomology and Pathology Laboratory, Victoria, BC. A List of Pathogens on Pinus, Populus, and Quercus in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory.

Zutshi & Gupta 2013. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 51: 361–363. Occurrence and characterization of Hericium coralloides: a rare wild edible mushroom from Doda region of J & K, India.
(Cited by Karun & Sridhar 2016; paper was unavailable. Could only access its abstract.)

 Sridhar 2016; paper was unavailable. Could only access its abstract.)

Hericium ptychogasteroides

Hericium ptychogasteroides

[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. Molecular work not located.]

“? Quercus” “on dead wood” CABI Index of Fungi 2: 311 citing Nikolaeva 1956 Bot. Zh. SSSR 41: 999 (Primorsky Krai in far eastern Russia; Maritime Territory 45.000000°; 135.000000°).

Name means “resembling a folded stomach”. 

Unable to access the original description.  From the Red Book of Russia Plants at Mycology.su:
Fruit body resembled a pincushion.
Teeth covering almost entire surface of fruiting body.
Basidia and basidiospores absent.

Maas Geesteranus made a helpful comment: “In the description, […] Nikolaeva stated that her species is based on an imperfect, i.e. conidiabearing, state. It is difficult, if possible at all, to ascertain to which species the corresponding perfect state would belong, but with Boudier’s plate in mind, H. ptychogasteroides may possibly be thought of as the conidial state of H. erinaceus.”

Stalpers 1996 suggested this name was a “nomen dubium, cf. Hericium erinaceus Bull.” [Nikolajeva, 1956, Botaniceskij zurnal SSSR, 41: 999, LEG] 

Does not appear to have been reported a second time.

Hericium fimbriatum

Hericium fimbriatum
[Given as an accepted species in Index Species Fungorum but most authorities reject. Molecular work not located.]

Considering Banker’s description, the very un-Hericium-like spores, plus his comparison of this to H. crocea (= Sarcodontia crocea); Meruliaceae), the acceptance of this as a valid name seems worth questioning.

ISF also mentions Saccardo 1912 Sylloge Fungorum 21: 373 as a corroborating reference but Saccardo is essentially just repeating Banker 1906 in Latin.

“On a decaying stump of some hard wood, between the bark and the wood.” Banker 1906 (Penn-sylvania, USA).


Hericium erinaceus ssp. erinaceo-abietis

Hericium erinaceus ssp. erinaceo-abietis

[This name appeared as Hericium erinaceum ssp. erinaceo-abietis.]

Quercus sp. Live tree. Burdsall et alia 1978 (Virginia, USA).

Burdsall’s reasoning:

1) “Hericium erinaceum has large ovoid basidiocarps with densely crowded pendent teeth up to 3 cm long and H. abietis basidiocarps are loosely organized systems of branches with less crowded pendent teeth. Hericium erinaceum subsp. erinaceo-abietis, on the other hand, is an irregularly shaped, solid, nodulose mass with small teeth (up to 3 mm long) covering the entire surface and protruding in all directions.”

2) “The basidiospores of H. abietis are 5-6 x 4-5 μm while those of H. erinaceum subsp. erinaceo-abietis are 6-7.5 x 4.5-6 μm.”

3) “The two also differ in structure of tooth trama.” 

4) “Hericium erinaceum subsp. erinaceo-abietis lacks the broad (up to 15 μm diam) thick-walled hyphae (walls up to 5 μm thick) which are found in H. erinaceum and the inflated cells (up to 15 μm diam) that have little wall thickening.” 

4) “In culture, H. erinaceum subsp. erinaceo-abietis grows about half as fast as H. erinaceum on malt extract agar at 25 C and about twice as fast at 32 C.” 

5) “The new subspecies and H. abietis grow equally well at 25 C on malt extract agar but H. abietis does not grow at 32 C while the new subspecies does.”

6) “The pairings between OKM 15159 single spore isolates and those of H. erinaceum [from Maryland (OKM 4950) and Arizona (JPL 317)] were totally compatible. Similar pairings between OKM 15159 single spore isolates and those from three different collections of H. abietis (a species found only in the northwestern U.S. and western Canada), however, showed partial, but not complete, compatibility as expressed by clamp connection formation.”

Maas Geestereanus’ comment concerning H. ptychogasteroides being the immature conidial state of erinaceus may be pertinent in regard to this? 

Yellowish is a normal aging color, becoming beige in its final stages of decline and collapse; orange to brown commonly occurs from oxidizing in old age or drying. Chocolate brown or grey indicates an unsuccessful battle with a contaminant. Pink or salmon are colorations that can occur under some conditions of warm temperatures or excess moisture. With sun, heat and dryness it can even become decidedly reddish. These are most often surface colors and reveal a white interior. 

Salmon, yellow, and pink can also occasionally be seen in young cultivated H. erinaceus and is not at all uncommon in young H. americanum. It is most often outgrown by the time that the teeth develop. Excess moisture stimulates its appearance in cultivation.

This color also can occur in the wild. For example the salmon-pink lion’s mane, probably also H. americanum, at Chris Mabberly’s website given as a coralloides.

It tends to be the most noticeable before the teeth have fully developed which not uncommonly looks very much like the photograph in Burdsall. Due to the coloration, the spore size and the growth form, Burdsall’s fungus was very likely an immature  americanum.

“In the late 1970’s a new taxon was described, i.e., Hericium erinaceum subsp. erinaceo abietis. This taxon differed from the typical H. erinaceum, e.g., by morphological traits of the fruitbody, spore size and mycelium growth rate. Studies showed that the described subspecies was a sterile hybrid between H. erinaceum and H. abietis [19].”

Sokół et al 2016.

It is worth questioning that conclusion. How such a mating of H. erinaceus with a species that is restricted to the Pacific North-West would have occurred in the first place has its own hurdles. The progeny then being found on a tree in Virginia?  It is worth looking closer.

Ginns appeared to add some support but he actually stopped two important steps short of actually evaluating the matter. His words on the matter are noteworthy: “Further, subsp. erinaceoabietis was compatible with H. abietis (No. 46) and H. erinaceus (No. 34) but was not tested against H. americanum or H. coralloides.” [Boldface added.]

It is this author’s suspicion that Ginns might have found compatibility had he tested it with americanum.

Most peculiar with regards to the claim of this being a hybrid is that Burdsall had actually dismissed that idea since he could not produce clamp formations with using single spore isolates of the two putative parent species. His comments: “The possibility that OKM 15159 was a hybrid of H. erinaceum x H. abietis was considered but in no case were clamp connections formed when single spore isolates of these two species were paired.” 

It is worth adding that IF H. erinaceum and H. abietis could be hybridized, the use of mating experiments for identifying the Hericium species would seem to be conceptually invalid.

There has been no confirmatory find reported.

Hericium erinaceum

This name, “Hericium erinaceum”, is a misspelling.

Many culture banks, herbarium data-bases, the National Checklist of Taiwan, the Atlas of Living Australia, a number of patents, assorted publications in analytical, medical &/or nutritional research and even a few mycologists employ the name “Hericium erinaceum (Bull. : Fr.) Pers.” Sometimes this name has appeared in molecular work alongside H. erinaceus. Sometimes it is given as the accepted name. It is however an error that now comprises a substantial minority of the locatable instances of use.

The name being misspelled “erinaceum” originated in the literature as a typo made in Persoon’s 1818 Traite sur les Champignons Comestibles (on page 251). 

Persoon had earlier employed the spelling erinaceus in 1794 (in Roemer’s Neues Magazin für die Botanik, page 153); also in 1797 (Commentatio de Fungis Clavaeformibus, page 27), and in 1801 (Synopsis Methodica Fungorum, page 560) and he did so again later in 1825 (Mycologia Europaea, volume 2, page 153). 

1818 was the only instance in any of Persoon’s works using the spelling erinaceum. Due to his respected stature as an authority and the nature of the work that it appeared within, his error has achieved some lasting power through its retellings.

Persoon’s 1818 entry itself supports his spelling as erinaceum being made in error. In this book, all of the authorities included by Persoon had spelled it erinaceus. Persoon had cited Bulliard 1797 (see page 304 and plate 34), Paulet 1793 (see plate CXCIII) and Trattinnick 1805 (see page 191). Persoon 1818 may have been the first appearance of the error but sadly this spelling was picked up by a minor portion of active authors from that time period onward.

Due to a minor number of prominent workers across several disciplines missing or not questioning the error, with some perhaps regarding it to be a correction of gender by Persoon, today a Google search will reveal erinaceus : erinaceum are currently both in use at a 28:1 ratio, with respectively 948,000 vs 33,800 results. In some of the latter instances both names are presented to be synonyms but “erinaceum” is actually quite easy to find used in the analytical and pharmacological literature. The GBIF database shows erinaceum with 39 entries and erinaceus with 1559. It is especially common in Asian publications and databases; possibly due to databases such as the Lai 2012, Atlas of Living Australia and Cybertruffle presenting it as the accepted name for the species.

In some instances erinaceum and erinaceus have even been evaluated in studies as separate taxa.

Serendipitously, Park et alia 2014 compared specimens bearing both names in a molecular study and reported differences between Asian erinaceum and US erinaceus.

More work is clearly in order but the application of Latin binomials does have some clearly defined rules.

Despite that there is a peculiar hurdle in this instance. The origin of the problem arose from a leading authority, Persoon, putting a misspelling into print and this error then being repeated by a few other respected authorities. That is an unfortunate combination that creates long-lasting perpetuations which are often highly resistant to correction.

Competent mycologists are included among those who have used, and in a few cases still use, the name. While Cooke 1871 used erinaceus, his successors, Stevenson 1886 and Massee 1892 changed it to erinaceum. In 1978, Burdsall et alia (Mycotaxon, 7(1): 1–9) attempted to describe a mushroom they encountered as new taxa Hericium erinaceum ssp. erinaceo-abietis.

Burdsall commented that Harrison 1973 (Michigan Botanist, 12: 177–194) had recognized Hericium erinaceum as one of the accepted Hericium species. Harrison had actually used the spelling erinaceus and never mentioned erinaceum. 

Some of the resistance to correction may involve workers trying to match genders of the suffixes without understanding why the word choices are what they are. Misperceptions of erinaceum as a correction of the gender no doubt helped perpetuate it.

Henderson 1981 helpfully made the comment that “”hedgehog” has the masculine ending “-us” even though Hericium is neuter, because “erinaceus” is a noun rather than an adjective.” 

Erinaceus europaeus is the European hedgehog. 

[In Latin, the nominative form of the noun is erinaceus and erinaceum is the accusative form.]

Many authorities and databases, have noted erinaceum to be an orthographic variant (i.e. a name with a spelling that entered the literature as a typo or other mistake). 

Fortunately the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (currently the Shenzhen Code 2018 — Turland et alia (eds.) 2018) includes some clear and simple provisions for what taxonomy is supposed to do with such orthographic variants:

 61.1. Only one orthographical variant of any one name is treated as validly published: the form that appears in the original publication […] [See the Code for the acceptable exceptions to this rule.]

 61.4. The orthographical variants of a name are to be corrected to the validly published form of that name. Whenever such a variant appears in a publication, it is to be treated as if it appeared in its corrected form

If only reality worked so simply…

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus
[Commonly accepted name.]
See comments on H. erinaceum.

Abies homolepis  ?

Acer macrophyllum

Acer nigrum

Acer rubrum

Acer saccharinum 

Acer saccharum

Acer spp.

Aesculus sp.

Ailanthus altissima

Albizia julibrissin

Alnus sp.

Betula sp.

Carpinus betulus

Carya aquatica 

Carya spp.

Castanea sativa

Castanopsis cuspidata

Castanopsis sp. 

Celtis laevigata 

Ceratonia siliqua

Diospyros virginiana

Eucalyptus sp.

Fagus crenata 

Fagus grandifolia

Fagus moesiaca

Fagus spp.

Fagus sylvatica

Juglans sp.

Liquidambar styraciflua

Liriodendron tulipifera 

Malus sp.

Morus sp. 

Notholithocarpus densifolia

Nyssa sp.

Nyssa sylvatica 

Platanus occidentalis

Platanus racemosa

Platanus spp.

Populus tremula 

Prunus sp.

Robinia pseudoacacia

Quercus acutissima 

Quercus agrifolia

Quercus alba

Quercus cerris

Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata 

Quercus chrysolepis

Quercus coccinea

Quercus conferta [Now = Q. frainetto]

Quercus douglasii 

Quercus faginea

Quercus garryana

Quercus gilva 

Quercus glauca 

Quercus hypoleucoides

Quercus imbricaria 

Quercus kelloggii

Quercus laurifolia 

Quercus leucotrichophora 

Quercus lobata

Quercus lyrata 

Quercus mongolica var. grosseserrata 

Quercus mongolica

Quercus montana

Quercus nigra 

Quercus nuttallii 

Quercus palustris 

Quercus petraea

Quercus phellos

Quercus prinus

Quercus pubescens

Quercus pyrenaica 

Quercus robur (now = Quercus pedunculata) 

Quercus rubra

Quercus salicina 

Quercus semecarpifolia

Quercus serrata 

Quercus sp.

Quercus velutina

Quercus wislizeni

Robinia pseudoacacia

Robinia spp.

Salix nigra 

Sorbus sp. 

Tilia spp. 

Ulmus carpinifolia

Ulmus sp.

Abies homolepis (Nikko fir) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan). (?)

Acer macrophyllum (broadleaf maple) DAVFP (BC, Canada).

Acer nigrum (black maple) “wood rot, sometimes heart rot of living trees” Anonymous 1960 (Vermont to Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota). 

Acer rubrum (red maple) “white heart rot” Ellett 1989 (Alaska).

Acer saccharinum (silver maple) See comment under A. nigrum. Anonymous 1960 (Kansas, Maryland, New Jersey) & Ginns 1985 (New Jersey); USDA collection list (Kansas) (BPI 261863); “white heart rot” Ellett 1989 (Alaska).

Acer saccharum (sugar maple) See comment under A. nigrum. Anonymous 1960 (Vermont to Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota); On living tree “within a hole 18 feet high on the bole.” Eslyn 1962 (Iowa); Maneval 1937 (Missouri); Preston & Dosdall 1955 (Minnesota).

Acer sp. (maple) Isolated from mine timbers. Esyln & Lombard 1963 (USA); Rastetter 1983 citing Marchand (France).

Acer spp. (maples) Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); in Henderson 1981; and Horst 2013.

Aesculus sp. (horse chestnut) Doll 1979 “once” (Mecklenburg, Germany).

Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven) On live trunk in urban center. Mir et alia 2017 (Balearic Island, Menorca); Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France) (as Ailanthus glandulosa). 

Albizia julibrissin (silk tree) “annually pruned […] in urban areas.” Global Fungal Red List; “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Greece); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia mentions a collection of “Hericium sp.” from this host (Ukraine).

Alnus sp. (alder) Spaulding 1961 (Great Britain); “trunks” USDA collection list (Germany) (BPI 261864).

Betula spp. (birch) Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); Harrison 1961 (Nova Scotia) Ginns 1985 suspected the mating indicating this ID had been based on a misidentified tester strain; A collection was also reported in Mackay 1904 (as H. erinaceum).

Carpinus betulus (common hornbeam) On dead stump. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).

Carpinus sp. (alder) Spaulding 1961 (Great Britain).

Carya aquatica (water hickory) Parris 1959 (Mississippi).

Carya sp. (hickory) “on a dead log” in Banker 1906 (as Hicoria).

Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) in crevices, wounds and hollows Bresadola 1906 (Europe).

Castanopsis cuspidata (Japanese chinquapin or shiia) On dead trunks. Otani 1957 (Japan); Spaulding 1961 (Japan).

Castanopsis sp. (chinquapin) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan)

Celtis laevigata (southern hackberry) Anonymous 1960 (USA).

Ceratonia siliqua (carob tree) “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Crete). 

Diospyros virginiana (American persimmon) “wood rot.” Anonymous 1960 (Louisiana).

Eucalyptus sp. was mentioned in Harrison 1973 (California, USA); “stump” ; USDA collection list (California) (BPI 261865); “stump dead” USDA collection list (California) (BPI 261866 & 261867). [Eucalyptus also successfully used in Australian cultivation.]

Fagus crenata (Japanese beech) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan).

Fagus grandifolia (American beech) “on live” Ginns 1985 (Pennsylvania, USA); “usually on dead trunks, sometimes on living trees” Anonymous 1960 (Maine, New York, Vermont, West Virginia). 

Fagus moesiaca (Balkan beech) Karadzic 2006 (Serbia & Montenegro).

Fagus sp. (beech) “stump” “fallen beech trunk” Lacheva 2014 (Bulgaria); Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); Rastetter 1983 citing Marchand (France); “collected from stumps” Afyon et alia 2009 (Sinop, Boyabat, Turkey); one of the main host trees. Doll 1979 (Mecklenburg, Germany); Stasińska 1999 (NW Poland in mountains not low areas); Ginns 1985 (UK); Harrison alluded it to only being true in earlier times due to loss of beech forests. Harrison 1961 (Nova Scotia); “living” ; USDA collection list (West Virginia) (BPI 261868 & 348384).

Fagus sylvatica (European beech) ATCC and Bisko et alia 2016 (the Netherlands); Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); “On trunks” Berkeley 1860 (UK); on living. Spaulding 1961 (Germany); Rupcic et alia 2018 (Germany) (STMA 06157B); USDA collection list (Germany) (BPI 261870); on living and dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2015 (Poland, Czech Repubic, Hungary & Austria); on live and dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2015 & 2017 (Slovakia); “trunk of living” Kunca et alia 2018 (Slovakia); “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Greece); on live and dead. Sikora & Neubauer 2015 (Poland); Dudka et alia 2004 (Ukraine).

Fraxinus sp. (ash) Anonymous 1960 (USA); Rastetter 1983 citing Marchand (France).

Juglans sp. (walnut) Anonymous 1960 & Cybertruffle’s Robigalia cited Teng 1996:314. (1 record from China); Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); Rastetter 1983 citing Marchand (France); also in Monica 2014 . Monica’s ID needs to be questioned: the included photo appears to be H. laciniatum/coralloides (Italy); also in Doll 1979 citing Bourdot & Galzin 1927.

Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum) “On wood” Alfieri et alia 1984 (Florida); Nakasone 1996 (southern USA); “Wood rot. Sometimes on living trees” Anonymous 1960 (Gulf states). It seems possible that this was in reference to Hericium americanum?

Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree) “Wood rot” Anonymous 1960 (Virginia).

Magnoliopsidae ord. indet. (this is a rather broad category) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing Teng 1996:314. (12 records from China). 

Malus sp. (crabapples & apples) Doll 1979 citing Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France).

Morus sp. (mulberry) Bresadola 1906 (Europe).

Notholithocarpus (Lithocarpus) densifolia (tan-oak) On living trees; less common on fallen trunks. Local observation by Trout (Mendocino Co, California, USA).

Nyssa sp. (tupelo) “wood rot, sometimes on living trees.” Anonymous 1960 (North Carolina).

Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo or sour gum) “white spongy heart rot” Anonymous 1960 (North Carolina).

Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore) Oudemans (1919–1924 (USA); “trunk rot, sometimes on living trees” Anonymous 1960 (North Carolina).

Platanus racemosa (California sycamore) Oudemans 1919–1924 (USA).

Platanus sp. (plane tree) was also mentioned in Harrison 1973.

Populus tremula (quaking aspen) Dudka et alia 2004 (Ukraine).

Prunus sp. Bresadola 1906 (Europe).

Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) “stump” Kunca et alia 2018 (Slovakia).

Quercus acutissima (sawtooth oak) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan).

Quercus agrifolia (coast live oak) Anonymous 1964 & Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California); USDA collection list (California) (BPI 262011).

Quercus alba (white oak) “white spongy butt and heart rot” Anonymous 1960 (New York to Alabama, Arkansas, Iowa); ATCC (New Jersey); “on live” Ginns 1985 (New Jersey, Pennsylvania, USA); Grand 1985 (North Carolina); Berry 1969 (Kentucky); Maneval 1937 (Missouri); USDA collection list (Washington, DC) (BPI 261878 & 262002); USDA collection list (Maryland) (BPI 262003); USDA collection list (Virginia) (BPI 262007, 262009 & 262012); Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA); “Butt & heart rot” Ellett 1989 (Alaska).

Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (oriental white oak) Tai 1979 (China)

Quercus cerris (turkey oak) Kew Gardens (England); on living and on dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia); “trunk of living” & “log” Kunca et alia 2018 (Slovakia).

Quercus chrysolepis (canyon live oak) French 1989 & Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).

Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak) Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA); “heart & butt rot” Ellett 1989 (Alaska).

Quercus conferta (Hungarian oak) “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Greece).

Quercus douglasii (blue oak) French 1989 (California).

Quercus faginea (Portuguese oak) on live tree. Merino Alcántara 2014 (Andalusia, Spain).

Quercus garryana (garry oak) Shaw 1973 (Oregon).

Quercus gilva (ichiigashi) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan).

Quercus glauca (Japanese blue oak) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan).

Quercus hypoleucoides (silverleaf oak) Gilbertson et alia 1974 (Cochise Co., Arizona).

Quercus imbricaria (shingle oak) Maneval 1937 (Missouri).

Quercus kelloggii (California black oak) Live tree; from branch scar. Local observations by Trout. (Boonville and Philo, Mendocino County, California); also in Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California); USDA collection list (Grass Valley, California) (BPI 261881); Filip et alia 1995 (Oregon).

Quercus laurifolia (laurel oak) “white spongy heart rot” Anonymous 1960 (Florida).

Quercus leucotrichophora (banj oak) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (India) [as = Q. incana].

Quercus lobata (valley oak) Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).

Quercus lyrata (overcup oak) “On wood” Parris 1959 (Mississipi).

Quercus mongolica (Mongolian oak) Spaulding 1961 (Siberia); “Decay” Chen 2003 (Jilin, Heilongjiang, Neimeng, China); “collected from a trunk of oak tree” Global Catalogue of Microorganisms (Japan) (as H. erinaceum) (as Quercus crispula (mizu-nara)].

Quercus mongolica var. grosseserrata (Mongolian oak) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan).

Quercus montana (chestnut oak) “sprout butt rot” Anonymous 1960 (Virginia).

Quercus nigra (blackjack oak) “white spongy heart rot” Anonymous 1960 (Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi); USDA collection list (Georgia) (BPI 269364).

Quercus nuttallii (Nuttall oak) “On wood” Parris 1959 (Mississippi).

Quercus palustris (pin oak) USDA collection list (Arkansas) (BPI 261882).

Quercus petraea (sessile oak) On living weakened and dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2015 & 2017 (Slovakia); “trunk of living”, “trunk of dead”  & “log” Kunca et alia 2018 (Slovakia); Karadzic 2006 (Serbia & Montenegro); Dudka et alia 2004 (Ukraine); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (Ukraine).

Quercus phellos (willow oak) ATCC; “white spongy heart rot” Anonymous 1960 (North Carolina); “On wood” Parris 1959 (Mississippi).

Quercus prinus (chestnut oak) Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA); “Pocket rot, wood decay” Ellett 1989 (Alaska).

Quercus pubescens (downy oak) “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Greece); Dudka et alia 2004 (Ukraine); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (Ukraine).

Quercus pyrenaica (Pyrenean oak) Cardoso et alia 1992 (Portugal).

Quercus robur (English oak) Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988 (Europe); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia cited Gizhytska 1929 (Ukraine).

Quercus rubra (red oak) ATCC; “On wood” Ginns 1985; Stalpers 1992 (All three Virginia); “white spongy heart and sapwood rot, wound rot of living trees.” Anonymous 1960 (West Virginia) (as Quercus borealis); Hanlin 1966 (Georgia).

Quercus salicina (Japanese willowleaf oak) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan)

 Quercus semecarpifolia (brown oak) “Decay” Chen 2003 (Tibet, Sichuan, China).

Quercus serrata (konara) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan).

Quercus sp. (oak) “on standing” “trunk” Ginns 1985 (Maryland); on living and dead: Sikora & Neubauer 2015 (Poland); on dead oak: Rastetter 1983 (France); Doll 1979: one of the main host trees (Mecklenburg, Germany); USDA collection list (Czechoslovakia) (BPI 261875 & 261877); dead trunk  & “trunk of living” Kunca et alia 2018 (Slovakia); Spaulding 1961 (Denmark & UK); “On trunks” Berkeley 1860 (UK); “On wood” Teng 1996 (China); Balfour-Browne 1968 (Nepal) (3300m in thick forest); ; “living” USDA collection list (North Borneo) (BPI 261876); Campbell et alia 1950 & Hanlin 1966 (Georgia); “rotten” ; USDA collection list (Maryland) (BPI 262008); USDA collection list (Tennessee) (BPI 324036); “log dead” USDA collection list (Virginia) (BPI 261872); Maneval (Missouri); “living” USDA collection list (Missouri) (BPI 261873 & 261874); USDA collection list (Monrovia, California) (BPI 262005); “dead” ; USDA collection list (Pt Reyes, California) (BPI 262006).

Quercus spp. (oaks) Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); also given in Persoon 1794: 153; “sur les grosses branches mortes du chêne” [on large dead branches of oak] Chevalier 1826:275 (France); on living and dead. “on old oaks” Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Crete); Kunca & Čiliak 2015 (Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary & Austria); Karadzic 2006 (Serbia & Montenegro); Kunca & Čiliak 2015 & 2017 (Slovakia); “arising from wounds of living or decaying trunks, stumps and logs” Singh 2017 (Uttarakhand, India); on dead trunks Otani 1957 (Japan); Kobayashi 2007 (Japan); “Decay” Chen 2003 (Tibet, Henan, Sichuan, China).
Berry & Lombard 1978 reported a prevalence of its occurrences on Black oak > white oak >> Scarlet oak > Chestnut oak (central USA).

Quercus velutina (eastern black oak) “decay” Ginns 1985 (Pennsylvania, USA); “white spongy heart and sapwood rot, wound rot of living trees.” Anonymous 1960 (North Carolina); Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA); “White pocket rot” Ellett 1989 (Alaska).

Quercus wislizeni (interior live oak) Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).

Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) “Wound” USDA collection list (West Virginia) (BPI 348482); On dead stump. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).

Robinia sp. (locust) on injured living tree was mentioned in Banker 1906 (USA); (also given in Keizer 2008).

Salix nigra (black willow) Isolated from decaying logs. Esyln & Lombard 1984 (Georgia).

Sorbus sp. (mountain ash) Doll 1979 citing Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France).

Tilia spp. (tilden) “Decay” Chen 2003 (Heilongjiang, China)

Ulmus carpinifolia (smoothleaf elm) (Now = U. minor) On dead log Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).

Ulmus sp. (elm) Boudier 1905 (France).

grows on trunks of wounded living hardwoods Spaulding 1961 

“On alive trunks of Quercus and Fagus” 1000-1400m. Nanagulyan & Senn-Irlet 2002 (Armenia).

“large stems of beech, both living and dead” Hansen & Veesterholt 2002 (Denmark). 

“nait des cicatrices des vieux chênes” (from scars of old oaks) Bulliard 1780.

“[…] in the scars of old oaks” Letellier 1826.

“pas rare sur vieux chênes; hêtre, noyer, Ailanthus glandulosa.” “not rare on old oaks; beech, walnut, Ailanthus glandulosa.” Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France).

“On oak and Robinia (living trees)” “loofbomen (eik, Robinia)” Keizer 2008 (Netherlands).

“living oak and beech” Hallenberg 1983 (C & S Europe; reaching as far north as S Sweden).

“beech (77%) or oak Quercus sp. (23%)” “At 71% of sites, fruiting bodies were found on dead wood, either on lying or standing trunks, and 29% − on living trees.” Sikora & Neubauer 2015 (Poland)

“High up on wounds and stubs on living trees; fallen large diam. wood.” Boddy et alia 2011 (UK).

“Beech, oak, hornbeam, and alder trunks.” Rea 1922.

“On old oaks” Gray 1821:651 (UK) [as = Steccherinum quercinum].

“On trunks, oaks, beech, &c.” Massee 1892 and Stevenson 1886 (UK). Cooke 1871 was almost the same but gave as “United States.”

“mainly in the wounds of old standing living trees. Most often Fagus sylvatica (beech), occasionally Quercus robur (oak). […] on cut end of felled trees and on trunks of fallen trees” Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK); “beech wood” Wald et alia 2004 (UK); “growing from scars on living deciduous trees, especially beech” Images on beech (UK) and on oak (USA) Roger’s mushrooms [http://www.rogersmushrooms.com/gallery/DisplayBlock~bid~6107~gid~~source~gallerydefault.asp]  Link unresponsive in 3-2019.

Oak, “fur les chênes” Paulet 1793: pages 424 & 427 (France).

“Quercia, Faggio, Noce e di altre piante decidue. “ (i.e. “Oak, Beech, Walnut [Juglans] & other deciduous species”) Monica 2014 (Italy) Photo appears to be of H. laciniatum/coralloides. 

“invariably grows out of the knotholes or wounds of the tree, which may be walnut, oak, elm, or beech.” “ranging from rare in central Europe to fairly common in southern England.” Pegler 2003.

“Growing as a weak parasite on trunks and thick branches of old, standing deciduous trees, mainly Quercus and Fagus, often in old wounds, often high above the ground and fruiting many years on the same tree. It occurs in old, deciduous forests but also on planted trees in parks and along roadsides.” ECCF 2001 (“Widespread in Europe”).

‘very rare in northern Europe, and has been found frequently only in Denmark.”

Classified as endangered in Sweden and in Poland; “usually grows on Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur, but also occurs on Betula, Juglans, Malus and Sorbus.” 

“In Central Europe further host trees are known.” 

“A characteristic site is a knothole or wound on a standing, living tree.” 

Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988.

“it grows on the trunks of leafy trees, especially on chestnut, mulberry, plum etc. between crevices, scars or cavities.” Bresadola 1906 (Europe).

“undisturbed beech [Fagus] and oak [Quercus] forests with high air humidity, in the cracks and cavities of living, old or dead trunks, fallen logs and stumps.” Siller et alia 2005 (Hungary).

“on living beech trees” Afyon et alia 2004 (Sinop, Boyabat, Turkey).

“Saprobic and parasitic […] fruiting from the wounds of living hardwoods (especially oaks)” Kuo website.

“most commonly emerging from wounds in living oaks, often from holes made by woodpeckers; occasionally it is found on locusts or on beeches; sometimes it is found on dead logs. Of fifteen specimens whose habitat was given, ten were on injured living trees; of these seven were Quercus, two Robinia, and one Fagus; the remaining five plants grew on dead logs, one on Quercus, one on Hicoria [Carya], and the others unknown” “…prefers living oaks” Banker 1906.

“On living oak, locust or beech, also occasionally on dead trees” Banker 1906 (USA and Mexico).

“associated with a heart rot of oaks, occasionally on other frondose species, and is usually found growing from knotholes or cracks on living trees. It is recorded on Fagus in a number of states, on Acer spp. (Washington), Eucalyptus (California) and Platanus (Virginia).” Harrison 1972.

“Solitary from branch scars of living hardwoods or on fallen logs;” Mycoweb (California).

“Causes a white pocket rot of living trees, and is associated with wounds.” Glaeser & Smith 2010.

“grows only on deciduous wood, oak along Pacific Coast, in this area on maple.” Henderson 1981.

Bisko et alia 2016 listed culture collections from Nevada, China, Netherlands & Taiwan.

“grows on both living and dead broadleaf trees” Mori et alia 2008 (Japan & China).

“On dead standing hardwood.” BCRC (Taiwan).

“old tree stump” for both of the finds reported in the Atlas of Australia (VIC, Australia)


“Distribution: Europe, North America (USA). Reports from Canada may be Hericium americanum (Ginns 1985).”

“Substrate: Dead wood; reports on living trees in Canada may be Hericium americanum.”

  “Wood” (Mexico) appears at USDA ARS GRIN but the reference given, Heredia 1989, does not include this.

Hericium coralloides

Hericium coralloides

[Commonly accepted name but not all users have been in agreement with one another as to what they mean by it.]

Abies alba 

Abies borisii-regis

Abies fabri

Abies firma

Abies homolepis

Abies spp.

Acacia dealbata 

Acacia melanoxylon 

Acacia spp. 

Acer negundo

Acer nigrum

Acer platanoides

Acer rubrum

Acer saccharum 

Acer saccharinum

Acer spp.

Agathis australis 

Alnus glutinosa 

Alnus incana

Alnus japonica 

Alnus spp.

Alnus tenuifolia 

Archontophoenix cunninghamii

Argyrodendron actinophyllum

Beilschmiedia tawa

Betula alba

Betula alleghaniensis (sometimes as synonym Betula lutea)

Betula papyrifera

Betula pendula

Betula sp.

Carpinus betulus 

Carpinus spp.

Carya spp.

Corylus sp.

Cupressus sp. ?

Dacrydium cupressinum 

Eucalyptus campanulata

Eucalyptus regnans

Eucalyptus spp.

Fagus crenata 

Fagus grandifolia

Fagus orientalis

Fagus spp.

Fagus sylvatica

Fuscospora fusca [formerly Nothofagus fusca]

Fraxinus excelsior

Fraxinus spp. 

Juglans sp.

Knightia excelsa

Maytensus sp.

Metrosideros robusta 

Morus alba

Morus spp.

Nothofagus cunninghamii [now = Lophozonia cunninghamii ]

Nothofagus menziesii [now = Lophozonia menziesii]

Nothofagus solandri [now = Fuscospora solandri]

A Nothofagus species. Either N. solandri or N. truncata [the latter now = Fuscospora truncata]

Nothofagus spp.

Notholithocarpus densifolia 

Nyssa sylvatica

Picea abies

Picea engelmannii (?)

Picea glauca

Picea spp. 

Pinus sylvestris 

Populus balsamifera

Populus papyrifera 

Populus spp.

Populus tacamahaca

Populus talassica 

Populus tremula

Populus tremuloides

Populus trichocarpa

Pyrus sp.

Quercus agrifolia 

Quercus cerris

Quercus coccifera

Quercus dilata

Quercus douglasii 

Quercus garryana

Quercus leucotrichophora 

Quercus liaotungensis

Quercus mongolica var. grosseserrata 

Quercus pubescens

Quercus robur [now = Quercus pedunculata]

Quercus serrata 

Quercus sp.

Salix spp.

Sloanea woollsii

Sophora japonica [now = Styphnolobium japonicum]

Sorbus aucuparia

Tilia cordata

Tilia spp.

Tsuga heterophylla ?

Tsuga sieboldii 

Ulmus spp.

Weinmannia racemosa 

Also reported to be found growing on:

  an unidentified tree-fern frond (VIC)

  an unidentified podocarp (NZ)

  a Ganoderma fruiting body (NZ) (?)

N.B. (with caution)

the claims for:

  Deciduous trees only.

  Conifers only.

“exclusively on deciduous wood” Harrison 1973 (as H. ramosum).

Exclusively on softwood. Maas Geesteranus 1959.

“grows only on deciduous wood, usually poplar.” Henderson 1981. 

in northwestern Europe […] grows almost exclusively on hardwoods.” Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988.

In the list that follows, hardwoods will be seen to predominate. Softer wood species will also be noticed. 

Hericium coralloides reported as occurring on Abies, Picea, Tsuga and other softwoods merit a closer examination to establish if these were misidentifications or if they are simply less common occurrences; or in some cases perhaps a new taxa deserves delineation. 

Abies alba (silver fir) Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus); Global Catalogue of Microorganisms (Czech Republic & Yugoslavia). [Ed.: was this H. alpestre?]

Abies borisii-regis (Bulgarian fir) “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Greece). [Ed.: was this H. alpestre?]

Abies fabri (Yunnan fir) “Decay” Chen 2003 (Tibet, China).

Abies firma (Momi fir) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan) (as H. ramosum).

Abies homolepis (Nikko fir) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan) (as H. ramosum).

Abies sp. (fir) ATCC (Yugoslavia). [Ed.: was this H. alpestre?]; Teng 1996 (China); Kobayashi 2007 (Japan) (as H. ramosum); “On decayed” Berkeley 1860 (UK); Jussieu ex Barrelier 1714:118 (as Fungus ramosus], Pollini 1824 and also Micheli 1720:122 (all 3 Italy). Rastetter 1983 seems also likely to be H. alpestre?

Abies spp. (firs) “White rot” Chen 2003 (Tibet, Sichuan, China)

Acacia dealbata (silver wattle) “dead log” ALA (Victoria, Australia).

Acacia melanoxylon (blackwood) “Blackwood stump, with leaves growing from the stump” ALA (Tasmania, Australia); “Fern gully […] on standing dead”, “a gully […] inhabiting a rotten, fallen blackwood”, “in a fissure in trunk”, “on stump” ALA (Victoria, Australia).

Acacia spp. (wattles) “fallen wattle tree” ALA (Tasmania, Australia); “fallen log (hanging from)” ALA (New Zealand); “On rotting Acacia log” ALA (Victoria, Australia).

Acer negundo (black maple) wood rot Anonymous 1960 (ne USA); possibly also the americanum in Day & Nair ND (Wisconsin).

Acer nigrum (boxelder) wood rot Anonymous 1960 (ne USA); possibly also the americanum in Day & Nair ND (Wisconsin).

Acer platanoides (Norway maple) Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus). 

Acer rubrum (red maple) wood rot Anonymous 1960 (ne USA); possibly also the americanum in Day & Nair ND (Wisconsin).

Acer saccharinum (silver maple) wood rot Anonymous 1960 (ne USA); possibly also the americanum in Day & Nair ND (Wisconsin).

Acer saccharum (sugar maple) wood rot Anonymous 1960 (ne USA); ; possibly also the americanum in Day & Nair ND (Wisconsin); “sporophores growing from an old log”, also found on living. Nordin 1954 (Ontario, Canada) (as H. laciniatum); Pilley & Trieselmann 1969 (BC, Canada) (as H. ramosum).

Acer rubrum (red maple) wood rot Anonymous 1960 (ne USA); Grand 1985 (North Carolina) (as H. ramosum).

Acer sp. (maple) or Fagus sp. (beech) Ginns 1984 (Virginia).

Acer sp. (maple) USDA ARS GRIN cited BPI (New York) (as H. ramosum).

Agathis australis (kauri) “fallen log” This is a conifer. ALA (6 finds from New Zealand: all were submitted as Hericium sp.)

Alnus glutinosa (common alder) “fallen wood” Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus).

Alnus incana (grey alder) Safonov 2014 (Orenburg Oblast, Russia).

Alnus japonica (East Asian alder) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan) (as H. ramosum).

Alnus sp. (alder) was mentioned as a host in Harrison 1973 (Oregon) and in Nikolaeva 1961 (Russia).

Alnus tenuifolia (mountain alder) “white rot of logs, Uncommon.” Kimmey & Stevenson 1957. (Alaska) (as H. laciniatum).

Archontophoenix cunninghamii (Bangalow palm) “Host in contact with soil, fallen, dead, rotten [trunk]” ALA (Queensland, Australia).

Argyrodendron actinophyllum (black booyong) “Dead wood from fallen” ALA (Queensland, Australia).

Beilschmiedia tawa (tawa) “standing dead stump”, “wood”, “large fallen rotting log” ALA (New Zealand).

Betula alba (silver birch) Ginns 1985 (Sweden).

Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch) Magasi 1966 (Canada). (as H. ramosum) (as Betula lutea).

Betula papyrifera (white birch) “White rot in wood of down dead trees. Uncommon.” Kimmey & Stevenson 1957 (Alaska); “wounded, live tree” Volk et alia 1994 (Alaska) (as H. ramosum) (HHB-12735-sp); Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (Both as = H. laciniatum); McArthur 1966 (Alberta, Canada) (as H. laciniatum); Conners 1967 (Nova Scotia) (as H. ramosum).

Betula pendula (white birch) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing Astapenko & Kutafyeva 1990 (Russia) (as = H. clathroides).

Betula sp. (birch) “on rotting” Ginns 1985 (Michigan); Lowe 1969 (BC, Canada) (as H. ramosum); Conners 1967 (Canada); “Collected on end of a beech log” Harrison 1961 (Nova Scotia); “Growing on a birch chopping block” Mackay 1904 (Nova Scotia); Hermansson 1997 (Russia); “windfall” Global Catalogue of Microorganisms (Serpukhov District, Russia); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (4 collections in Russia); “dead unfallen”, “on stump” Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus); Mycology.su (Russia and Western Siberia); Kobayashi 2007 (Japan) (as H. ramosum).

Carpinus betulus (common hornbeam) Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus).

Carpinus sp. (hornbeam) or Fagus sp. (beech) Ginns 1984 (UK).

Carya sp. (hickory) “grows from dead wood” “on a dead hickory” Coker 1918 (North Carolina, USA) (as Manina flagellum).

Cupressus sp. (cedar) ? see Pollini 1824 (Italy).

Corylus sp. (hazelnut) Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988 (Central Europe).

Dacrydium cupressinum (rimu) “well rotted podocarp” ALA (New Zealand). This is a conifer.

Eucalyptus campanulata (New England blackbutt) “under” ALA (Queensland, Australia).

Eucalyptus regnans (mountain ash) “Inside a hollow of a mountain ash tree”, “riparian vegetation […] on top of fallen rotting log [host ID questioned]”, ‘on mountain ash trunk” “seen at two locations” ALA (Victoria, Australia).

Eucalyptus spp. (gum trees) “On dead fallen Eucalypt”, “Living Eucalyptus species” ALA (Victoria, Australia); “living eucalypts”, “on living eucalypt”, “base of eucalyptus tree” ALA (Tasmania, Australia). [1 possibly E. obliqua]

Fagus crenata (Japanese beech) Kobayashi 2002 (Japan) (as H. ramosum).

Fagus grandifolia (American beech) “wood decay” Ellett 1989 (Alaska); Magasi 1966 (Canada)(as H. ramosum); Wehmeyer 1950 (Nova Scotia) (as H. laciniatum); “usually on dead trunks, sometimes on living trees” Anonymous 1960 (Maine, New York, Vermont, West Virginia) (as both H. coralloides and H. laciniatum) (Possibly suggesting the former referred to H. americanum? All of the coralloides in Pilley & Trieselmann 1966 have been placed there as well.)

Fagus orientalis (oriental beech) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (unclear if Georgia or Ukraine) [as = H. alpestre forma caput-ursi]; also mentioned in Doğan et alia 2005 (Turkey) See comments below.

Fagus sp. (beech) “On decayed” Berkeley 1860 (UK); “stump” Lacheva 2014 (Bulgaria); Pollini 1824 & Micheli 1720:122 (Italy); Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); Ginns 1985 (Denmark); “on fallen trunk” Ginns 1985 (Sweden); Hallenberg 1983 (Denmark, France, Sweden, Yugoslavia); Abrego et alia 2017; Domanski et alia 1960 (Poland); Harrison 1961 (Nova Scotia) (as H. ramosum); “on trunks or logs, often on beech” Groves 1981 (Canada); preferred host given in Banker 1906 (USA & Canada; as H. laciniatum); Anonymous 2014 (Alaska). Arnold 2001 proposed Hericium coralloides as an indicator species for undisturbed beech forests.

Fagus sylvatica (European beech) ATCC (Denmark); Bisko et alia 2016 (near Nijmegen, Netherlands); Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Greece); Stalpers 1992 (Ostrava, Czechoslovakia); “on old trees” (as H. ramosum) Domański et alia 1960 (on the slope of Szeroka Wierch, SE Poland); Dudka et alia 2004 (Ukraine); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (7 records from Ukraine).

Fraxinus excelsior (European ash) Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus); also mentioned at the Global Fungal Red List.

Fraxinus sp. (ash) Ginns 1986 (Canada); Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); “On decayed” Berkeley 1860 (UK); also mentioned in Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (1 record from Georgia).

Fuscispora fusca (red beech) “large old log” ALA (New Zealand).

Ganoderma (?) Reported to have occurred on a Ganoderma fruiting body. Most likely the perception of the Ganoderma being the actual host was not accurate. It seems more probable that they were sharing the same host and became intimately associated. Also reported associated on a single host with Ganoderma. ALA (NZ); H. coralloides was reported to have been found sharing the same host with Ganoderma and in one case this was noted as following it. ALA (Tasmania, Australia).

Juglans sp. (walnut) Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); Monica 2014 includes, as H. erinaceus, an image that appears to be H. coralloides (Italy).

Knightia excelsa (rewa-rewa) A specimen from Colenso: Hooker 1867:611 (Hooker doubted the ID due to an ash-grey color but this is a color that can occur when old or infected with mold); “standing and fallen”, “fallen rotten wood” ALA (New Zealand).

Maytensus spHallenberg et alia 1983 (Argentina).

Metrosideros robusta (northern rātā) ALA (New Zealand).

Morus alba (white mulberry) Pollini 1824 (Italy).

Morus sp. (mulberry) Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); also mentioned in Persoon 1794:151 “Quercum, etiam ad Fagos et Abietis, et in Italia ex Batarra […], in Ulmis et Morus provenit.”; Micheli 1720:122 (Italy); Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988 (central Europe).

Nothofagus cunninghamii (myrtle beech) “dead”, “rotten trunk”, “on fallen branches”, “on tree” ALA (Victoria, Australia); “dead tree” ALA (Tasmania, Australia).

Nothofagus menziesii (silver beech) “well rotted standing dead wood”, “very wet rotted log” ALA (New Zealand).

Nothofagus solandri (black beech) “rotten wood” Atlas of Living Australia (New Zealand).

Nothofagus sp. (unclear if black or hard beech) (i.e. respectively Nothofagus solandri var. solandri or Nothofagus truncata) “rotten stump” ALA (New Zealand).

Nothofagus spp. (southern beeches) “dead tree”, “standing dead tree” , “dead stump”, “spotted on a damp tree stump” ALA (Victoria, Australia & New Zealand); “typical of dead wood although sometimes also recorded on living trunks” McKenzie et alia 2000 (New Zealand) (as H. clathroides).

Notholithocarpus (formerly Lithocarpus) densifolia (tan-oak) Common on dropped limbs, fallen trunks, on dead standing trees, inside hollows (as both growth forms). Very rarely on the dead tissue of a large live tree.
Local observations by Trout (Mendocino Co. California, USA); Chen 2003 notes a 1934 collection by Metcalf from Willits.

Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo) “on decayed log” Van Hook 1922 (Indiana, USA) (as Hydnum caput-ursi). [Ed.: was this a H. americanum?]

Picea abies (Norway spruce) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing Burova 1968:363. (1 record from Russia). [Ed.: was this H. alpestre?]

Picea engelmannii (Engelmann’s spruce) Ginns 1986 (Canada) [Ed.: was this H. abietis?].

Picea glauca (white spruce) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum) [Ed.: was this H. abietis?]; Conners 1967 (BC, Canada) [Ed.: was this H. abietis?]; McArthur 1966 (Alberta, Canada) (as H. laciniatum); Conners 1967. (Alberta, Canada) (as H. ramosum). 

Picea sp. (spruce) Lowe 1969 (BC, Canada) (as H. ramosum) Noted as rare host; DAVFP (BC, Canada). [Ed.: Were these H. abietis?]

Pinus sylvestris (scots pine) “on trunk of supposedly living” Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus). [Ed.: H. alpestre?]

Podocarpaceae (these are conifers). Not identified beyond family. “dead standing tree” ALA (New Zealand).

Populus alba (white poplar) Haller 1768 (Sweden) [as = Echinus ramosus].

Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) Specimen AKMC 1016. Chen 2003 (Alaska); Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum); Callan 1998 (BC, Canada); McArthur 1966 (Alberta, Canada) (as H. laciniatum); “Associated with a white rot” Gilbertson & Lombard 1976 (Minnesota) (as H. coralloides. It is possible this should be moved to americanum CHECK RLG 9766.

Populus spp. Lowe 1969 (BC, Canada); Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba , Canada).

Populus sp. (poplar) Lindsey & Gilbertson 1978 (USA); Anonymous 1960 (northwestern USA) (as H. americanum); Shaw 1973 (Washington) (as H. americanum); Lowe 1969 (BC, Canada) (as H. ramosum); DAVFP (BC, Canada); Ginns 1985 (Ontario, Canada); BVN 2009 (Alberta, Canada) (as H. ramosum); “Decay” Chen 2003 (Xinjiang, China); Hermansson 1997 (Russia); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing Safongy 1999:79. (1 record from Russia); Mycology.su (Russia and Western Siberia); Sterbeeck 1675:254-255 (Netherlands).

Populus tacamahaca (black cottonwood) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum).

Populus talassica (命叶杨 / mi ye yang) “Decay” Chen 2003 (Xinjiang, China).

Populus tremula (quaking aspen) Ginns 1985 (Sweden); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing Astapenko 1990:290. (1 record from Russia) [as = H. clathroides].

Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) Basham 1958 (Ontario, Canada); Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada); Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum); Callan 1998 & DAVFP (BC, Canada); Conners 1967 & Lowe 1969 (BC, Canada) (as H. ramosum).

Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood) “wood rot, chiefly of logs” Anonymous 1960 (northwestern states); Cash 1953 (Alaska) (as H. laciniatum and as H. coralloides); “log” Volk et alia 1994 (Alaska) (as H. ramosum) (HHB-12700-sp); Callan 1998 (BC, Canada); Thomas & Podmore 1953 (BC, Canada) (as H. laciniatum); DAVFP (BC, Canada); Lowe 1969 (BC, Canada) (as H. ramosum); “decay in” “on decorticated windfall” Ginns 1985 (BC, Canada). Most common host species in BC collections. DAVFP included a collection of “americanum” from BC, Canada on this substrate). It seems reasonable to suspect it was a coralloides; Ziller 1957 (BC, Canada); Ziller 1961 (BC, Canada) (as H. laciniatum); Conners 1967 (BC, Canada & Alaska) (as H. ramosum/laciniatum); Basham 1958 (Ontario, Canada) (as H. laciniatum).

Pyrus sp. (pear) Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988 (central Europe).

Quercus agrifolia (coast live oak) Anonymous 1960 & French 1989 (California)

Quercus cerris (Turkey oak) “on coarse woody debris” Urban 2015 (Austria).

Quercus coccifera (kermes oak) Micheli 1720:122 (Italy).

Quercus dilatata (tilonj) “on dead parts of trunk” Sultana & Qreshi 2007; Ahmad & Khali 1997 (both Pakistan) (both as H. ramosum).

Quercus douglasii (blue oak) French 1989 (California).

Quercus kelloggii (black oak) French 1989 (California) (as H. ramosum).

Quercus garryana (garry oak) Lowe 1969 (BC, Canada) (as H. coralloides); DAVFP included a collection of “americanum” from BC, Canada on this substrate) It seems reasonable to suspect this was coralloides.].

Quercus leucotrichophora (banj oak) “trees and fallen wood” Karun & Sridhar 2016 citing Zutshi & Gupta 2013 (Jamma & Kashmir, India); “Dead tree” Karun & Sridhar 2016 citing Thind & Khara 1975 (Himchal Pradesh, India) [as = Q. incana]; Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (India) [as = Q. incana].

Quercus liaotungensis (Liaotung oak) Chen 2003 (Shanxi, Liaoning, China) (As H. caput-medusae.)

Quercus mongolica var. grosseserrata (Mongolian oak) Kobayashi 2002 (Japan) (as H. ramosum).

Quercus petraea (sessile oak) Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus); Dudka et alia 2004 (Ukraine); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (Ukraine).

Quercus pubescens (downy oak) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (Ukraine).

Quercus robur (European oak) “on decaying trunk” Ginns 1985 (Sweden); “on fallen wood” Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus); ALA (Swrcow, Mahrisch-Weisskirchen, Czech Republic).

Quercus serrata (konara) Kobayashi 2002 (Japan) (as H. ramosum).

Quercus sp. (oak) Teng 1996 (China)

Salix sp. (willow) Ginns 1985 (Ontario, Canada); Specimen AKMC 1014. Chen 2003 (Alaska); Kobayashi 2002 (Japan) (as H. ramosum).

Sloanea woollsii (yellow carabeen) “Wood, stag buttress 250 cm diam. and roots” ALA (Queensland, Australia)

Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda tree) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (2 records from Ukraine) [1 as = Hericium coralloides; the other as Hericium sp.].

Sorbus aucuparia (rowan) “A wound parasite entering large open wounds on hardwood trees.” Spaulding 1961 (Norway).

Tilia cordata (little-leaf tilden) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing Burova 1968:363. (Russia); Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988 (Europe).

Tilia sp. (tilden) Russian Red Book Plants (Russian Federation).

Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock) DAVFP (BC, Canada). [Ed.: H. abietis?]

Tsuga sieboldii (Southern Japanese hemlock) Kobayashi 2002 (Japan) (as H. ramosum).

Ulnus spp. (elm) Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); also mentioned in Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK) and Mycology.su (Russia).

Weinmannia racemosa (kāmahi) ALA (New Zealand).

“Outside of Belarus [reported] from Populus, Salix [willow], Sorbus [mountain-ash], Tilia [tilden], and Ulmus [elm].” Yurchenko 2002.

“Inhabiting big-size fallen wood, dead unfallen trunks and large branches, stumps; sometimes […] in trunk holes” Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus)

“Large stems of hardwood, especially beech” Hansen & Veesterholt 2002 (Denmark).

“Fallen decayed trunks of Fagus sylvatica and other deciduous trees, and exceptionally on Abies” Hallenberg 1983 (Sweden) (as = H. clathroides).

On Morus alba, and “on beech [Fagus], fir [Abies], cypress [Cupressus]” “ad Fagos, Abietes, Ilices” Pollini 1824 (Italy).

“Standing dead trunks, fallen trunks and larger branches” Boddy et alia 2011 (UK).

“On angiosperm wood” Stalpers 1992 (Epping forest, England).

“Logs on ground. Mostly Beech, also on Fraxinus and Ulnus” Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK).

“Beech wood” Wald et alia 2004.

“Decayed fir, beech, ash, birch, and oak trunks.” Rea 1922.

“Common in Iowa on dead logs of frondose species” Miller 1935. (Iowa) (as = Hericium laciniatum/coralloides).

“On beech and hickory logs” Banker 1906 (Canada and USA: NY to CA) (as = Hericium laciniatum/ramosum).

The most common host genus [in Scandinavia] is Betula (64.3%) [Norway 30%; central & northern Sweden 41.8% and Finland 75.2%], followed by Populus, predominately tremula, (18.1%) [Norway 40%; Sweden 23.6% and Finland 14.5%];
“In Denmark the commonest host tree is Fagus sylvatica, and only one find from Betula was reported by Knudsen and Pedersen (1984). The Norwegian hosts were Betula sp., Populus tremula and Sorbus aucuparia, in this order. In [southern] Sweden, 21.8% of the collections derived from Fagus sylvatica;
Collections also exist from Acer platanoides, Alnus sp., Populus tremula, Ulmus sp., Salix sp. and Tilia cordata. In two Swedish collections, Abies was indicated as the host, but samples of the wood were lacking and it was impossible to confirm the determination; these collections also represented H. coralloides in the present sense.” (Sweden);
Additional Scandinavian collections were reported on Acer platanoides, Alnus incana & Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens & Betula pendula, Populus balsamifera, Salix spp, Tilia cordata & Ulmus sp.;
These records indicate that in northwestern Europe H. coralloides grows almost exclusively on hardwoods;
“In Central Europe H. coralloides favours Fagus sylvatica, but has also been reported from the genera Betula, Carpinus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Pyrus, Quercus and Ulmus.” 

Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988.

“Woody plants (live trees, bark and dead wood). 

It grows on the stumps and dead trunks of deciduous trees, mainly birch, rarely beech, elm, alder, oak, linden, aspen, in mixed and deciduous, occasionally coniferous forests.” [citing Nikolaeva 1961].

In Western Siberia, it is found mainly on [..] small-leaved species (birch, aspen).” [possibly drawn from  Red Book of the Novosibirsk region 2018?]

Russian Red Book online (Mycology.su).

“Most commonly on Acer spp., frequent on Fagus and Betula, single collections on Ulmus, Carya, and Fraxinus. It is the only species seen on cottonwood and aspen (Populus spp.) in the west. Single collections on Alnus (Oregon) and live oak (California), and in Alaska on Betula and Populus.” Harrison 1973 (as Hericium ramosum).

“Grows on stumps and trunks of dead hardwoods, mainly birch, rarely beech, elm, alder, oak, linden [Tilia sp.], aspen […] occasionally in conifer forests” Russian Red Book; Plants (Russian Federation).

“On decayed wood, fir, beech, &c.” Massee 1892 & Stevenson 1886 (England).

“Decayed log” ATCC (UK).

“Hardwood logs” Ostry et alia 2011.

“upon oak and other trees” Gray 1821:652 (UK).

“dans les fentes des vieux arbres et sur les vieilles poutres” [in the fissures of old trees and on old logs] Chevalier 1826:279 (France) (merges coralloides and ramosum). 

“on the oldest tree trunks, and mainly on oaks.” Letellier 1826.

“On la trouve sur plusieurs sortes d’arbres, sur-tout sur le chêne en France, en Italie & en Allemagne” Paulet 1793:427.

“Fruits from dead hardwood logs and stumps,” “Saprobic and possibly parasitic…typically fruiting from fallen hardwoods branches and stumps, but very rarely reported from the wounds of living hardwoods (perhaps as a result of misidentification)” Kuo website.

“Grows only on deciduous wood, usually poplar.” Henderson 1981.

“On hardwood logs” Mycoweb (California) (as H. ramosum).

“Grows on prostrate trunks of trees of various kinds.” Hyams 1900 (North Carolina, USA).

“On dead standing hardwood.” BCRC (Taiwan) (as H. ramosum).

“Grows in damp areas on dead wood from native and introduced trees” (9:20), “on dead wood such as native and exotic logs and stumps.” “normally found on damp decaying wood in sheltered locations.” (4:227) Hubregtse 2018 (Australia).

Substrates described as “dead stumps”, “large logs”, “fallen dead very rotten trunk” Atlas of Living Australia (Lists 39 records from NSW, Australia; many of which were submitted as H. clathroides.)

 “Permanent shade. […] along sides of very wet rainforest trunk on ground”. Substrates described as “on fallen tree leaning up slope”, “on rotting log on a sloping moist, shaded gully”, “on very dead, decorticated log”, “on dead fallen wood”, “on very rotten log”, “rotting stump”, “on dead wood of 6 metre high stump”, “in large tufts on old logs and may be gregarious”, “gregarious on large decaying log” ALA (Lists 34 records from Queensland, Australia; many submitted as H. clathroides.) 

“A large mass had formed low down on a living tree trunk, well below the track”. Substrates described as “tall dead trunk”, “upright tall dead trunk”, “on tree trunk”, “standing dead tree”, “near river in deep shade […] standing tree”, “large upright trunk”, “trunk of dead tree”, “on trunk of dead tree 1.5m above ground”, “near river in deep shade […] standing tree”, “wood, trunk”, “on underside of fallen branch of native tree”, “dead log (15cm diameter) which was in ground”, “on dead treefern frond […] not sure of identity”, “wet forest, base of dead standing tree” ALA (Lists 56 records from Victoria, Australia; many submitted as H. clathroides.). 

Reported from a variety of cool wet habitats in Tasmania: “Riverine rainforest”, “wet riverine environment”, “Cool temperate mixed forest. The myrtle side of the forest”, “In beech forest”, “Mixed cool temperate forest with Nothofagus cunninghamii and Eucalyptus obliqua”, “Eucalypt rainforest with Nothofagus, laurel, Pomaderris and satinwood”, “Mixed wet forest: Acacia melanoxylon, Nothofagus cunninghamii, Monotoca glauca”, “Mixed cool temperate forest with myrtle” “Cool temperate forest with Eucalyptus, myrtle, leatherwood and native laurel”, “Mixed myrtle, manferns, leatherwood, sassafras”, “wet forest with Sassafras”, , Reported in Huon pine / Nothofagus rainforest, in forests with Nothofagus predominating, commonly reported from “wet sclerophyll” habitat and in “cool temperate mixed forest, dominated by Nothofagus cunninghamii, manferns and sassafras”, “Site was logged many years ago”. Reported substrates were a familiar mix: “Large troup on rotting log”, “fallen log “, “standing dead tree”, “dead tree trunk”, “tree trunk”, “rotting stump”, “stump of a rotting tree”, “very rotten stump”, “tree buttress or stump”, “fallen to ground, decaying”, “magnificent display up entire dead tree trunk”, It was found on several living Eucalyptus. ALA (Lists 162 records from Tasmania, Australia).

Many reports from New Zealand’s beech forests. Substrates described as “dead wood”, “standing stump”, “rotten stump”, “dead trunk”, “rotting tree trunk”, “dead standing tree”, “fallen wood”, “large log”, “rotting log”, “rotten log”, “wet rotted log”, “very rotten log”, “decayed fallen log”, “hardwood log” (in broadleaf podocarp forest), “rotting bark on dead standing trunk”, “bark of living tree”, “tree” (no indication if live or dead). ALA (Lists 67 records from New Zealand; the vast majority as Hericium clathroides. Plus 8 additional records of the same as Hericium sp.). 

The reports from New Zealand and Australia need more study to establish if they represent one or two species. The very slender branched and long toothed specimens are quite striking by comparison to the rest. 

Colenso 1889 attempted to propose Hydnum novae-zealandiae as a new species; commenting that it was different in form from a single Hydnum laciniatum he had encountered some 40 years earlier. His newer specimen was collected from a Beilschmiedia tawa; which is not uncommonly represented as a host tree in the coralloides/laciniatum collections that are detailed at ALA. He included no illustration but his account is interesting in view of the other collection reports. Colenso considered these to be rare in New Zealand. It might be wondered if the increase of reports in subsequent years was more heavily affected by the impact of New Zealand’s logging industry or the increased frequency of nature-minded forest visitors due to tourism OR if Colenso’s difficulty in finding more specimens in the 19th century  perhaps reflected the Maori’s known enjoyment of the fungus as food?

“On decayed fir, beech, ash, &c.” Cooke 1871 United States)

Occurring on Abies (fir) and Picea (spruce). Gobice 2013. [May refer to alpestre/flagellum?]

Log in conifer forest. Thind & Khara 1975 (Jammu-Kashmir, India)

As H. caput-medusae:
“on the dead woods” Letellier 1826;
“On trunks of trees” Cooke 1871 (United States);
“On trunks” Massee 1892 & Stevenson 1886 (England).

Beware of this name as it does not have consistency of application between authorities.

Hericium clathroides

Hericium clathroides

[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. Most workers consider this to be a synonym for coralloides. Some (such as Thongbai et alia 2015) reserve clathroides for a New Zealand find that is most often housed in Australian herbariums as coralloides, or some workers (such as Maas Geesteranus) limit coralloides to being a conifer lover, and ignore the reports of hardwood loving coralloides in North America, Asia, Australia, NZ and Europe. Some recognize clathroides AND coralloides. Additional confusions between alpestre and coralloides may also exist.]

Abies sp. (fir) Tanchaud 2015 (France) (as = H. ramosum).

Betula pendula (white birch) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing Astapenko & Kutafyeva 1990 (Russia) (as = H. clathroides).

Betula, Fagus and Quercus Thongbai et alia 2015 (New Zealand).

Fagus sylvatica (beech) Bisko et alia 2016 (Moldavia, Czech Republic); Stasińska 1999 (NW Poland); “Fallen decayed trunks of Fagus sylvatica and other deciduous trees, and exceptionally on Abies” Hallenberg 1983 (Sweden).

Populus tremula (quaking aspen) Ginns 1985 (Sweden); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia cited Astapenko 1990:290. (1 record from Russia).

Quercus incane [sic] Karun & Sridhar 2016 citing Thind & Khara 1975 (Himachal Pradesh, India). [Quercus incana is now Q. leucotrichophora.]

“Galio sylvatici-Carpinetum with Fagus”, “Deschampsio flexuosae-Fagetum (=Fago-Quercetum, Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum)”.
Lisiewska 2006 (Poland) (as = Hericium ramosum).

“ad truncos pineos putridos inventum.” [“Found on rotten pine trunks.”] Persoon 1794 (Russia near Ob River).

The host accounts given suggest a re-examination of either identifications or synonyms might be in order.

Atlas of Living Australia lists: 

39 records from NSW, Australia; many of which were submitted as H. clathroides;

34 records from Queensland, Australia; many submitted as H. clathroides;

56 records from Victoria, Australia; many submitted as H. clathroides;

67 records from New Zealand; the vast majority as Hericium clathroides. (There are 8 additional records as Hericium sp.). 

The majority of those were on hardwoods but that is not true for all of them. 

More details can be found in the H. coralloides softwood hosts reports list.

See also tthe entry for H. flagellum (which includes the former entries for H. alpestre).