I love January

I love January as cultivated Hericium coralloides requires no environmental support. This is my favorite mushroom but likes it colder and a little drier than erinaceus so we do not always have it in the rotation.

Hericium coralloides Spiral 013
Hericium coralloides Spiral 013

These came from a clone (T013) taken around a decade ago from a mushroom collected below the Spiral cabin. It has consistently been one of our best producing coralloides clones.

Hericium coralloides Spiral 013
Hericium coralloides Spiral 013
Hericium coralloides Spiral 013
Hericium coralloides Spiral 013
Hericium coralloides Spiral 013
Hericium coralloides Spiral 013
Hericium coralloides Spiral 013
Hericium coralloides Spiral 013
Hericium coralloides Spiral 013
Hericium coralloides Spiral 013

Where does the time go?

Amazing the year has flown by so fast. We’ve been busier than ever. Hope to see you at the Farmer’s Market!

These beauties went to the Ukiah Farmer’s Market today. Thanks for everyone’s continued interest in our mushrooms!

Another week of lion’s mane

We’ve been so busy it is challenging to keep up with uploading videos.

This was the view inside on the 3rd. Thanks for everyone’s interest in our mushrooms! We hope to see you Saturday at the Farmer’s Market in Ukiah or locally another day.

A great beginning

We have begun refilling the lion’s mane chamber. Harvests have already been occurring with many more lion’s manes on their way! See you at the Farmers Market!

Happy 2021!

Unexpected shiitakes

Last year, what appeared to be shiitakes were noticed to be naturalizing in the forest. This year, we paid closer attention and they are indeed shiitakes! They tasted great last night. Clones were attempted and will be tested on bags and on logs. Stay tuned for further developments of our new local shiitake strain.

NOT Hericium abietis

4 April 2019 UPDATE:

These are unmistakably Hericium erinaceus that were grown from a commercial liquid culture misidentified as Hericium abietis. There is no question about that identification; especially as they have begun putting on teeth and slicing one opened revealed a solid interior. At least now I know why I’ve been puzzling over their appearance looking so stubbornly underdeveloped!

For sake of comparison, the first image below is of a correctly identified Hericium abietis photographed at the Mount Pisgah Mushroom Festival at Eugene, Oregon.

Hericium abietis
Hericium abietis

The following show what was grown from a commercial culture that was purchased earlier this year. The amazing part is that these mushrooms grew so well on a mixture of douglas-fir, white pine and spruce!

Hericium erinaceus sold as Hericium abietis and grown on conifer media.
Hericium erinaceus sold as Hericium abietis and grown on conifer media.
Hericium erinaceus sold as Hericium abietis and grown on conifer media.
0.5 lb. mushroom
Hericium erinaceus sold as Hericium abietis and grown on conifer media.
There is no mistaking those teeth
Hericium erinaceus sold as Hericium abietis and grown on conifer media.
That is very clearly the flesh of an erinaceus not abietis.

That mushroom was delicious in dinner last night. Both the taste and the texture were excellent.

NOT Hericium abietis 3 April 2019

I am amazed at how big these are getting prior to putting on their adult teeth. Those bags are 9 inches (22.95 cm) wide.
The media is a supplemented blend of doug-fir, pine and spruce.

However, the ID of these is presently in question until I start seeing a lot more tooth and branch development.

Hericium abietis on 3 April 2019
NOT Hericium abietis on 3 April 2019
Hericium abietis on 3 April 2019
Hericium abietis on 3 April 2019

23 March 2019

The lighter colored media (six bags in a tray and four on a shelf below it) are our first testing of Hericium abietis. They are just starting to fruit.

Rather than creating a new post, here is a closer look at a couple of what are NOT Hericium abietis on the 26th of March.

not abietis

And a look at the NOT Hericium abietis on the 29th of March.

Hericium abietis
young NOT Hericium abietis
young Hericium abietis
young NOT Hericium abietis

Spring is almost here!

A recent view of the lion’s mane chamber

A slideshow and talk was recently given to the Mendocino Coast Mushroom Club. It was a lot of fun that included meeting a bunch of really nice mushroom people!

I had hoped to load that slideshow to the website but encountered some technical difficulties. It was instead turned into a ~157mb PDF that can be accessed HERE. The only slide that did not import was the video above.

Lion’s manes are back!

The first harvest of a few lion’s manes occurred this week. Unsurprisingly they all sold at yesterday’s market. More are on the way for this Saturday’s Farmers Market and for next week.

Hericium erinaceus 11 september 2018

Hericium erinaceus 11 September 2018

August update

We decided to take advantage of the hot weather for pressure washing the entire facility. We will be back at the Farmer’s Markets in early September.

Another great week.

This week saw a total harvest of 21 pounds of lion’s manes and a much smaller amount of shiitakes. Our mushrooms have been selling out the past couple of weeks so we will keep expanding our production to fulfill the growing demand.

We hope to see you at the Ft. Bragg, Mendocino or Ukiah certified Farmers Market.

Hericium erinaceus

Lion’s mane mushrooms (Hericium erinaceus)




See you at the Farmer’s Market.

Lion’s mane harvests are still on the light side (4 kg were harvested from the two trays shown fruiting in the previous video) but despite that they made some people in Mendocino happy last week (and a couple in Ukiah). A light offering of our mushrooms will be at Ft. Bragg today and more at Ukiah on Saturday; with lots more to come and another round of bags scheduled to be opened and added today. We will also be at Mendocino next week.

Another week of mushroom growth; shown on Tuesday afternoon..


AND, while the next shiitakes to be harvested from our spawn bag production are still some weeks in the future, the first few shiitakes are beginning on some of the ricks that were plugged last summer.


A young shiitake mushroom (Lentinulus edodes)

A young shiitake mushroom (Lentinulus edodes)


Spring in 2018

We are looking forward to the 2018 Farmer’s Market season!
This year we will be sharing mushrooms with The Forest People so we will be offering each other’s mushrooms; our lion’s manes and their oysters respectively. One or both of us hopes to see you in Mendocino, Ft. Bragg or Ukiah at the MCFarm certified farmers market.
A look at the Hericium fruiting chamber today is below. It appears that we will be back at a steady pace again within the next two weeks.

Hericium erinaceus -- Lion's mane

These are ready to harvest.


The garden is gearing up for Spring also.

We will soon have gobo (burdock root) and will be bringing some incredible ha gobo leaves to the next farmer’s market. This has become one of our favorite greens. It has a flavor similar to collards but with a luscious velvety mouth feel.


Ha gobo leaf

Ha gobo leaf

New life in 2018

After resolving a technical problem with our ISP, all of our web content and email occurring since the 26th of last July has vanished.

Some views of the Hericium fruiting chamber are below; taking us up to the point of a fungus gnat invasion in January. We shut down following that discovery (look for discolored or prematurely toothy fruiting bodies to see its beginning), decontaminated the entire facility, built another layer of entryway protection and are now in the process of refilling the chamber with bags again for 2018 Farmers Market.
New videos will be added soon showing our progress but for now here are some looks at our experience occurring between late July 2017 and January 2018.

Two weeks of growth: part 2 — 28 July 2017 IMG 2607

Two weeks of growth: part 3 — 28 July 2017 IMG 2620

Two weeks of growth: part 4 — 1 aug 2017 IMG 2622

Two weeks of growth: part 5 — 1 aug 2017 IMG 2642

Two weeks of growth: part 6 — 5 aug 2017 IMG 2661

Two weeks of growth: part 7 — 9 aug 2017 IMG 2676

Hericium erinaceus 2018 January 04 IMG 5042

Hericium erinaceus 13 Jan 2018 IMG 5335

Hericium erinaceus 19 Jan 2018 IMG 5793

Hericium erinaceus 25 january 2018 IMG 5959

26 July 2017

The Hericium fruiting chamber today.

This year’s spring rains added some challenges but we are now in the process of getting our production back up to speed.
We look forward to seeing you at the Boonville Farmer’s Market.


Another great year!

2017 promises to be an exiting year.  We hope to see you at the Boonville Farmer’s Market.

As of February 25, 2017, we can now accept payments using credit cards or PayPal at the Farmer’s Market.

Recent views

We made a small harvest for market in between these two sets of images but thought it would be of interest to see some paired images from 30 September and 1 October as they show how fast lion’s manes can grow.


cultivated Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-09-30

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-10-01

Hericium erinaceus 2016-09-30

Hericium erinaceus 2016-09-30

cultivated Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-10-01


Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-09-30

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-10-01


Good CO2 levels for Hericium erinaceus

Good CO2 levels for Hericium erinaceus

2 March 2016

Amazing Mushrooms!by Natural Products of Boonville

We look forward to seeing you at this week’s Farmer’s Market.

We will have lots of lion’s manes, a few Hericium americanum and shiitakes.
Also some potatoes for your planting delight.


19 November 2015

It is actually the 4th of December and I had hoped to post this pair of youtube videos a few days ago so am editing an older post.

The first view was following a harvest and the beginning of another round of open bags. Some from the previous round are still going and on their second flush.



This was the view on 24 November.


There is another video at youtube that was taken in between those. The camera had become lost and does not reliably date media so the day it was taken is unclear but was likely on the 21st or 22nd of November.

Lions mane

Hericium erinaceus 24 October 2015

Cultivated: 167 grams (1/3rd lb.)



Hericium erinaceus 1 November 2015

Wild: 730 grams


We can’t sell wild mushrooms but we certainly do eat them! Part of this one was delicious last night cooked with chicken and vegetables.

And there was another Lion’s mane that was found today (2 November). Harvesting mushrooms such as this one can be potentially dangerous.


I did not manage to bring this one down as a single, 791 gram, piece.


There was another one above it that was easily 30+ feet higher on the tree (so it was safe from me).

Hericium tree

A Chinese adage is good to keep in mind considering Hericium erinaceus eats trees:
Fools and smoke like to climb high

Hericium tree

This is that same tree when I checked it a month ago (5 October)

Hericium tree


Getting back into gear

Things are moving along well as we begin refilling the Hericium fruiting chamber.

These images are from 22 October 2015.

We just completed a nice harvest, removed those trays and replaced them with the spawn bags that are ready. We hope to see you at this weekend’s Farmer’s Market.
It will be the second to last certified Farmer’s Market of the season.


Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus


Hericium erinaceus

Forming fruit


Hericium erinaceus

Top tray is forming fruit; bottom tray was just opened


Hericium erinaceus

Just opened


Hericium erinaceus

Just opened


Hericium erinaceus

Bags at various stages of colonization


Hericium erinaceus

Colonizing bags


Hericium erinaceus

New arrivals


Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus


Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

What is in our mushrooms?

1 lb of shiitake

What goes into our mushrooms is really simple.

We start with tan-oak (Lithocarpus densifolia) sawdust from the local business Frank’s Firewood.
Frank is in the business of producing and selling firewood but that process creates a lot of great sawdust which is perfect for our needs. Frank refuses to take in any trees that have been killed or treated with herbicides.

Frank's Firewood sawdust from Frank's Firewood sawdust from Frank's Firewood

sawdust from Frank's Firewood
To that is added organic wheat bran and the highest-quality pure gypsum that is considered to be ‘organic’. We are not presently recognized as organic producers but do our best to include only pure ingredients.

When we make spawn, we use organic rye grain. If we order commercial grain spawn it comes from a certified organic producer.


The only other thing that we incorporate in the recipe for our mushroom growing media is the high-quality water from our protected well.

We are taking it one step farther and as of late February 2016 will be using only organic nonGMO dextrose which is derived from grapes and imported from Italy thanks to Naturalia Ingredients and Ciranda. There was so much difficulty locating organic dextrose that we have decided to offer small quantities at reasonable prices to other mushroom producers who are wanting to use entirely organic ingredients.

organic nonGMO dextrose

Lion’s mane are delicate and fragile mushrooms that can bruise easily (compare ours to those from other producers). To minimize handling, and any bruising or discoloration, we carefully pick each individual Lion’s manes using a bakery tissue and gently nestle them together loosely. Most mushrooms, such as shiitakes, don’t require that. Whenever possible all of our mushrooms are harvested directly into their resale packaging. Boxes such as the one below promptly go into refrigeration to ensure you of the longest possible shelflife.

The most important thing we put into the production of all of our mushrooms is a lot of love.

Freshly picked Lion's manes

Freshly picked Lion’s manes

Simple is good.

Hericium erinaceus




Equinox 2015

The hot temperatures lately seemed to suggest a perfect opportunity to clean the fruiting chamber and get ready for some nice Hericium weather again (outdoors and indoors).

After summer maintenance

After summer maintenance

After summer maintenance

After summer maintenance

That process all went great but for reasons we do not understand recovery is proceeding a little slowly. We had hoped to have the lion’s manes back in action for this week’s Farmer’s Market but it appears they won’t catch up with the interest until midweek next week.

the fruiting chamber is back on

the fruiting chamber is back on

the fruiting chamber is back on and starting to fill again

the fruiting chamber is back on and starting to fill again

lion's manes on their way

lion’s manes on their way

Shiitakes are still ongoing and increasing in numbers.




Tomatoes in recent weeks:


Betimes Macbeth


Black-brown boar


Black-brown boar


Chef Hubert


Black-brown boar


Cherokee Purple


Cherokee Purple


Clackamath Blueberry


Green brandy


Green brandy


Betimes Macbeth and Matt’s Folly


A delicious mixture


Yellow heirlooms


Striped students


Striped students


Striped students


Matt’s Folly




Cooking mushrooms

Downloadable PDF version of this page

Cooking with the Lion’s Mane mushrooms (Hericium species)

There are many ways to cook the Lion’s mane (Hericium) mushrooms.
My favorite two:

1)  Cut into 1/2 inch slices or if solid and very large the slices also get re-sliced into 1/2” wide strips. Some people prefer to tear them into pieces. Try both approaches to discover which you like best.

Wild harvested mushrooms, including Lion’s mane, will usually go into a dry fry pan at the beginning to ‘sweat out’ a lot of liquid (and flavor). which will then take a few minutes to reduce and be re-sorbed back into the mushroom (usually 6-8).
If the hericiums were cultivated, or if they were wild harvested during periods of non-rainy weather, they usually need a few tablespoons of water to be added at first (and occasionally more later) to prevent scorching.
If oil is used it should be only enough to prevent sticking. Too much results in frying the mushroom. Ideally just small bits of water should be used at this point.

The mushrooms should be started on a medium high heat and cooked for around 1-2 minutes with stirring — just to get them completely hot quickly, then the heat should then be reduced to medium low or low and they should be cooked covered for another 15 minutes with occasional stirring. Halfway into the cooking add a small amount of butter or a 2:1 mixture of olive oil and butter.
Wine or other optional liquid seasonings should be added only towards the end of the cooking process or they can be absorbed to the point of obscuring the delicate flavor of the lion’s mane.

2)  Start out the same as above but add the butter and/or oil much sooner, as soon as liquids have been resorbed by the mushrooms. (be sure that all excess liquid has been resorbed before adding butter/oil) and cook over moderate heat until the edges and teeth begin to get golden-brown and crunchy.  This will require  a bit more oil than the first method plus very close monitoring towards the end, to avoid scorching.

All Hericium mushroom species freeze well once cooked. They can be prepared when available, packed into half-pint jars, and frozen for use at another time.

Easy Chicken with Lion’s Mane, peppers & potatoes

Thinly slice or dice a medium onion and a largish clove of garlic.
Lightly cook in a frying pan in oil. I greatly like a blend of Avocado oil and roasted garlic olive oil.
Add 1/2 dozen baby bell peppers cut into quarters.
When the color of the onions and the peppers begins to change, turn over and add 1-3/4# organic boneless chicken thighs, approximately 2 cups of (four medium sized)
potatoes or the equivalent in small potatoes,  roughly same amount of Hericium as potatoes (cut into 1/2 inch sections; or if large the slices should be resliced into 1/2″ wide strips) approximately two cups once chopped. I like to add one or two slices of butter at that point as well.
Cover and cook on medium-low to medium heat until the chicken is done.  Usually 15-20 minutes.
Salt and/or pepper to taste, if needed.
Hot peppers may be added with the bell peppers if heat is desired and the chicken may be omitted if a vegetarian dish is desired.
If the chicken is omitted more monitoring is required and a few tablespoons of water may be needed in order to prevent scorching of the vegetables.


Cooking with Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes)

Cook them in good oil such as butter, olive-oil:butter, avocado oil, etcetera until the slices are limp.
Shiitakes are versatile. They can be stir fried, baked plain or stuffed, marinated and grilled, added whole to the vegetables that get cooked along with a roast or in an earthen oven, added to soups, stews or meat dishes, or they can be cooked alone and enjoyed as  dish. Precooked shiitakes can also then be combined with other foods such as omelettes, vegetables, soups and salads. It may be convenient to cook enough mushrooms for adding to 2 or 4 meals.  Cooked shiitakes freeze acceptably.
Butter, garlic & a little salt may compliment shiitakes own distinctive flavor.
Stems of shiitakes are most often fibrous and very tough. They should be removed before cooking.
Thicker stems can be very thinly sliced and fried until golden brown in butter or butter and oil for a crispy-to-chewy treat. Thinner, tougher stems can be dried and ground into a powder for later use as a thickening agent in soups, stews, stock reductions and many types of sauces. Or stems *can* be discarded.

Shiitake ‘bacon’ with sea-palm fronds

Slice shiitakes thin but not too thinly. A couple to several (2-4) mm is fine. Try to slice them evenly.
Place the slices into a bowl and add a minimum amount of your favorite cooking oil then gently stir extremely well. A variant of this is to spread the slices out on a cooking sheet and lightly mist with a light spray of oil before tossing to coat all surfaces. It is important to not use too much oil.
The goal is to get a bare minimum but thorough coating of oil on all of the mushrooms. A special touch can be created by adding a drop of liquid smoke to the oil and shaking very well before oiling the mushrooms.
Once this is done lightly season with sea salt and again mix thoroughly. Other seasonings can also be added but keeping it simple has great results.
Spread the shiitakes out into a single layer on a foil or parchment paper lined baking sheet. Sprinkle the top with coarse sea salt.
Bake in a preheated 350°F oven, checking frequently, especially towards the end.
You want them to cook completely dry, turning brown with some golden parts. This takes a few minutes (15 or more minutes is common; the hotter the oven the faster it goes but monitor them carefully as rotating the pan may be required in some ovens. The last few minutes of this goes very fast so it requires a close eye to prevent burning.
Using care, transfer the baked mushrooms from the hot sheet into a bowl.
Let it cool and you now have a bowl of shiitake bacon.
Break some crunchy dried sea palm fronds into smaller pieces & toss with your shiitake bacon. Enjoy.
If you are an optimist this can be packed into a jar and placed into a refrigerator for storage. If you are a realist you will probably leave it available on the counter knowing it will be consumed very quickly.

Caution: this food item may be found to be compulsively addictive.

It is important to cook shiitakes thoroughly.

Approximately one in 50 or more people appear to have a sensitivity to uncooked or undercooked shiitakes. Most shiitakes consumed in the world are dried and then rehydrated; drying is not the same as cooking and a thorough cooking is still needed.
In those rare individuals who are allergic, consuming undercooked or raw shiitakes may result in a skin rash resembling poison oak but accompanied by characteristic scratch-like lines (“flagellate”). If there is an allergic reaction, the rash begins 24-72 hr following ingestion and can last for up to 14 days. It resolves spontaneously without any treatment but a doctor can shorten its duration.
Most people are not allergic. Thoroughly cooked shiitakes appear to be OK for everyone.

29 June 2015

Our shiitakes are finally getting going again!



This first small round of bags is showing some signs of heat stress but they are just the beginning. The new fruiting chamber should be able to keep the shiitakes cool enough to stay happy this summer. It just came online within the past few days.

Inside of the new shiitake fruiting chamber

Inside of the new shiitake fruiting chamber

The day before market

Here is a look at a few of the mushrooms that will be going to the Farmer’s Market tomorrow (23 May 2015).

This week the Boonville Farmer’s Market is being held at its regular time from 10-1230 in the Boonville Hotel parking lot followed by a special event at the Madrones in Philo from 1-4.

Three Hericium species will be available this week and the shiitakes are getting closer to fruiting with every passing day.

Hericium americanum (Bear’s head) is winding down. This cycle has been a market-test to see how well people like it so the availability is still limited. If it does well at this weekend’s market I’ll start up another run of it and it will return to production in a few weeks.


Hericium americanum


Hericium americanum


young Hericium americanum

Hericium coralloides (Coral tooth) will be there in very limited numbers for the lucky few people who can grab them first.


Hericium coralloides

And the Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane) will be there of course.


Hericium erinaceus


Hericium erinaceus


Hericium erinaceus

This was the view inside of the fruiting chamber today:


Hericium erinaceus and some americanum


Hericium erinaceus and some americanum


Hericium erinaceus getting started for next week


All three species


Hericium americanum (top) and Hericium erinaceus (below)


Hericium erinaceus


Hericium americanum and Hericium coralloides


Hericium erinaceus and Hericium coralloides

These bags are heading towards being ready for next week:


Hericium erinaceus on supplemented sawdust

And I thought it might be time for another tour inside of the fruiting chamber:


It is not yet clear exactly what tomatoes we will be offering this year but an update will be added as soon as possible.

These are a few images of last year’s tomatoes (summer 2014).

Clackamath Blueberry

Clackamas Blueberry (an F5 tomato)

Clackamath Blueberry

Clackamas Blueberry (an F5 tomato)

Clackamath Blueberry

Clackamas Blueberry (an F5 tomato)

Green Brandy

Green Brandy

Green Brandy

Green Brandy


Green Brandy

Green Brandy

Green Brandy Tomato

Green Brandy

Heirloom pink

Heirloom pink

heirloom pink

heirloom pink

heirloom pink

heirloom pink

Matt's Folly

Matt’s Folly

Matt's Folly

Matt’s Folly

Matt's Folly

Matt’s Folly









Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner) Unripe fruit

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)




Rau răm

AKA “Vietnamese Cilantro”
Polygonum odoratum Lour. — renamed Persicaria odorata (Lour.) Soják

Polygonum odoratum

Polygonum odoratum

Fresh leaves and young stems are used fresh.

Many common names can be encountered online:
Cambodian: Chi krasang tomhom, Chi pong tea koun
Chinese:  香蓼
Chinese [Cantonese]: 越南香菜 (Yuht nàahm hēung choi), also 喇沙葉 (Lāak sāa yihp) [Singapore Cantonese])
Chinese [Mandarin]: 越南香菜 (Yuè nán xiāng cài), 喇沙葉 (Lā shā yè)
Czech: Kokořík vonný
Danish: Vietnamesisk Koriander
English: Asian mint, Cambodian mint, Hot mint, Kesum, Laksa plant, Perennial coriander, Smartweed, Vietnamese coriander, Vietnamese cilantro, Vietnamese mint (this last common name is shared with Kinh Gioi: Elsholtzia ciliata)
French: Coriandre du Vietnam, Persicaire du Vietnam, Renouée odorante
German: Vietnamesischer Koriander, Wohlriechender Knöterich
Hmong: Luam laws
Hungarian: Vietnámi menta
Khmer: Chi krassang tomhom, Xang-hum
Lao: Phak phew/Phak phaew/Phak pheo
Malay: Dawn laksa/Daun laksa, Dawn kesum/Daun kesom [Singapore]
Manipuri [Meitei-Lon]: Phakpai/Phak-Pai
Portuguese: Hortelã-vietnamita
Russian: Купена лекарственная (Kupiena lekarstvennaya), Горец ароматный (Gomets aromatny)
Singapore: Daun kesom, Laksa herb, Laksa leaves, Laksa plant, Laksa yip
Spanish: Culatro de Vietnam, Culatro
Thai: จันทร์โฉม  (Chan chom), หอมจันทน์   (Hom chan)  [Ayutthaya],  ผักไผ่  (Phak phai/Pak pai/Phak pai),  พริกม้า   (Phrik ma)  [Northeastern Thailand], Pa pao
Vietnamese: Rau Râm






Burdock root comes from the Greater Burdock or Arctium lappa.


Burdock (Arctium lappa)

Once grown as a common and popular vegetable in the European Middle Ages, burdock has inexplicably fallen out of popularity in modern times. It is still quite well-loved and eaten throughout Asia.


Brazil: bardana, garduna.
China: ngau pong, niúbàng (牛蒡 ), niu bang zi.
Croatia: čaj od čička, lopuh, lapušina, veliki čičak, veliki ripanj
Czech republic: lopuch větsí.
Denmark: burre.
English-speaking countries: burdock, edible burdock, greater burdock, great burdock, great bur, common burdock, aireve, airup, bachelor’s-buttons (more often applied to Centaurea cyanus), bardane root, bazzies (?), beggar’s button, billy-buttons, bourholm (obsolete), burr seed, clive, clit-bur, great clotbur, clot, clod, cockle-bar, cockle-bur (more often applied to the Xanthium species), cockle-button, cockly-bur, crocklety-bur, cockly, cuckoldy-bur, cuckold-dock, cucklemoors, cuckold-dock, cuckoo-button, eddick (?), edible goberon, flapper-bags, Fox’s clote, happy major, harebur, hardock (also appearing incorrectly as harlock), herrif, hoar-dock, hurr-burr, lappa root, lappa, love leaves, personata, philanthropium. stick-button, sticky buttons, thistle (more often applied to other plants), thorny bur, turkey-bur (name applied to other plants) .
Estonia: suur takjas.
France: glouteron (Codex), artichaut, bardane, bardane comestible, bardane commune, bardane géante, bardane majeure, bardane officinale, bouillon noir, catherinettes, chou d’âne, copeau, croquia, craquia, crakia, grachias, grande bardane, graquias, grateau, gratteau, gratteron, grippe, herbe aux pouilleux, herbe aux seigneurs, herbe aux teigneux, herbe du teigneux, oreille de géant, napolier, pignet, piquant, rapace, rhubarbe du diable, rhubarbe sauvage, rosesbardane, tabac du yâb, toques.
Germany: große klette, dollenkrautwurzel, kleberwurzel, klettendistelwurzel, klettenwurzel, kletten-wurzel, klissenwurzel, rossklettenwurzel.
Hungary: bojtorján.
Italy: bardana, lappa bardana, bardana maggiore.
Japan: gobō (牛蒡 or ゴボウ or ごぼ).
Latin: Bardanae Radix, Radix Arctii, Radix Lappae, Radix Personatae.
Lithuania: varnaléša.
Norway: borre.
Poland: lopian.
Portugal: bardana, orelha-de-gigante
Spain: bardana.
Russia: lapuch, lopuszniek, repiejnik.
Korea: u-eong (우엉)
Serbia: čičak, korijen čička (dried)
Taiwan: 牛蒡
The slender roots can reach 4 feet, and resemble a carrot in shape. Harvesting is typically done when they reach around two feet long. The roots are brown with white flesh that rapidly darkens with exposure to air. That oxidation can also stain fingers so latex gloves might be desired.
Preparation is commonly done using a bowl of acidified water to place pieces into as they get cut. This will help keep them light colored.


Burdock roots can be eaten raw or cooked. They have a mild, earthy flavor that is highly prized for rich soups and stews. The root of burdock is very commonly julienned or sliced thinly.


The immature peeled flower stalks and the young leaves can also be eaten fresh or cooked. Cultivars have been developed specifically for their leaves. The roots are also enjoyed pickled.



Burdock seeds were the inspiration for the invention of Velcro by George de Mestral in the 1940s.



Golden berry

Physalis peruviana



Golden berry (Physalis peruviana)

All plant parts of the golden-berry other than ripe fruit, including the unripe fruit, are considered to be poisonous. The fruit are harvested after their husks have fallen to the ground, but care is needed to be sure that they have turned golden-yellow and are fully ripe. Mature fruit will keep for several months.
The ripe fruit can be eaten fresh out of hand or used in salads and cooked dishes. They are also popular dipped in chocolate or candied or dried into golden “raisins”.

English: pichuberries (USA), Cape gooseberry (South Africa, UK), African ground cherry, Aztec berry, Barbados gooseberry, bladderberry, giant ground cherry, Goldenberry, golden berry,  golden Cape gooseberry, golden husk goldenberry, gooseberry tomato, ground cherry, ground-cherry, groundcherry, Husk Cherry, Inca berry,  love apple, Peruvian cherry, Peruvian groundcherry, Peruvian Ground Cherry, Peruvian cherry, Peruvian tomato, Poha, Poha Berry, strawberry tomato, wild gooseberry, winter cherry. (Not related to any true cherry or true gooseberry.)
French: amour en cage
Italian: alchechengi.
Spanish: uchuva (Colombia)

This plant is originally from Brazil but has become naturalized in Peru and Chile.
It has been cultivated in England and South Africa for more than 200 years. It has become distributed almost worldwide and is regarded to be an invasive pest in frost-free climates such as Hawaii.
It is cultivated in many of the African nations, also in Turkey, India, Australia, New Zealand, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Chile, and Peru.

It was reported to be potentially harmful to the heart health of men if they consume massive quantities of the fruit (>5 kg of fruit per kg of body weight). This does not appear to pose a significant risk factor as people always ingest far less.















Plugging Logs

Plugging logs is nowhere near as efficient as growing mushrooms using spawn bags but it is within more people’s reach. Logs also have an advantage of lasting longer so make a nice complement to our bag production.

Holes are best drilled using a high-speed drill and a stop.

There are a couple of different tools for this.

Shiitake drill (10,000 rpm)

high-speed shiitake drill

high-speed shiitake drill

The Hitachi Koki DW12SA (S) is a specialty tool that was made by Hitachi for the shiitake industry.

It can sometimes be difficult to obtain outside of Japan but Japanese people can help obtain one by serving as a reshipper. A number of people do this as a commercial service. Acquiring it can cost about the same as the price of the drill once factoring in all of the postage. SOMETIMES companies exist which resell this item so it is worth checking if anyone is presently doing this.


High-speed modified drill

high-speed drill using angle grinder

high-speed drill using angle grinder

An angle grinder (10,000 rpm) can be obtained from any hardware store.

An angle adaptor and a drill bit with a stop can be obtained from Field and Forest that will turn it into a high-speed shiitake drill.

That same company also sells this as a complete set including the angle grinder.

This costs in the ball park of the price for the shiitake drill in Japan.



Tools & supplies:

high-speed drill 

bit with stop sized for media choice (the shiitake drill has a built-in stop; drill bits that include stops are convenient). 12mm for sawdust media. 10.5mm for plugs.

inoculation tool for sawdust or a hammer for plugs.

bowl or container to hold sawdust media or plugs while working

wax dauber

wax pot

hot plate

eye protection


metal plant tags

writing implement




Hericium rajendrae

[Newly described in 2019. The description included molecular work.]

Quercus sp. (oak) “living tree-trunk” Singh & Das 2019 (Uttarakhand, India)

“  This species is mainly characterized by reddish white to pale red coloured basidiomata, concolorous spines with acute to sub-acute or rounded apex, pleasant odour, monomitic hyphal system, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid minutely warty basidiospores, abundant gloeocystidia with rounded to acute apex and occurrence on the tree-trunk of living broadleaf tree.”

Singh & Das 2019

Hericium yumthangense

Hericium yumthangense
[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. The description included molecular work.]

Abies densa (Sikkim fir) “attached to living host” Das et al. 2013 (Sikkim, India).


Hericium schestunovii

Hericium schestunovii

[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. Molecular work not located.]

Quercus pedunculata (a synonym for Q. robur) Nikolaeva 1961: 238. (USSR; 55.000000°; 40.000000°).

[Nikolajeva, 1961, Flora plantarum cryptogamarum URSS. Fungi. Familia Hydnaceae 6(2): 238, INV; bas.: Hydnum schestunovii Nikolajeva.]

Hydnum schestunovii Nikol. 1949, Notulae systematicae Instuti cryptogamica Horti botanici Petropolis: 87

Named for the botanist N. Schestunov.

Unable to access the original description. 

From The Red Book of Russia at Mycology.su:

  Said to have fruiting bodies consisting of tiled caps with an irregular semicircular shape.
   Non-amyloid spores.

Does not appear to have ever been reported a second time.

Hericium rajchenbergii

Hericium rajchenbergii
[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. The description included molecular work.]

Lithraea molleoides (aroeira-branca) “dead standing” Hallenberg et al. 2012 (Córdoba province, Colón Department, Argentina).

Lithraea sp. “fallen log” Hallenberg et al. 2012 (Córdoba province, Colón Department, Argentina)



Abrego et alia 2017. Fungal Ecology, 27: 168–174. Understanding the distribution of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech reserves from species-specific habitat models.

Afyon et alia 2004. Turkish Journal of Botany, 28: 351–360. Macrofungi of Sinop Province.

Afyon et alia 2009. Mycotaxon, 93: 319–322. A study of wood decaying macrofungi of the western Black Sea Region, Turkey.

Ahmad et al. 1997. Fungi of Pakistan.(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Aho & Filip 1982. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 12(3): 705–708. Incidence of wounding and Echinodontium tinctorium infection in advanced white fir regeneration.
(This citation appears to be erroneous.)

ALA = Atlas of Living Australia [https://www.ala.org.au/] Link confirmed 17 Mar. 2019.]

Albee-Scott 2007. Mycological Research, 111(6): 653–662. The phylogenetic placement of the Leucogastrales, including Mycolevis siccigleba (Cribbeaceae), in the Albatrellaceae using morphological and molecular data. 

Alfieri et alia 1984. Florida Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind. Bull. 11. Index of Plant Diseases in Florida (Revised).
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Allen et alia 1996 & 2007. Common Tree Diseases of British Columbia, 38–39. Heart rots: Yellow pitted rot. (Hericium abietis).

Anonymous 1960. USDA Agricultural Handbook, 165: 1–531. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States.

Anonymous 1964. Diseases of widely planted forest trees. From an FAO-UN symposium. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.
(From USDA ARS GRIN; Not presently accessible.)

Anonymous 2014. USDA, Forest Service, Alaska Division, RG-209. Mushrooms of the National Forests in Alaska.

Arnolds 2001. In Moore et alia Fungal Conservation. Issues and Solutions. pages 64–80. The future of fungi in Europe: threats, conservation and management. (Digital version was in 2008.)

Astapenko 1990 [as Астапенко, В.В.]. Консортивные связи дереворазрушающих грибов в Среднем Приангарье [Symbiotic relations of wood-destroying fungi in the middle Angara river region]. Микология и Фитопатология [Mycology & Phytopathology] 24(4): 289–298.
(From Cybertruffle 2016. Not presently accessible.)

Astapenko & Kutafyeva 1990 [as Астапенко, В.В.; Кутафьева, Н.П.]. Консортивные связи макромицетов с видами рода Betula L. [Symbiotic relationships of larger fungi with species of Betula L.]. Микология и Фитопатология [Mycology & Phytopathology] 24(1): 3–9.
(From Cybertruffle 2016. Not presently accessible.) 

ATCC product information, data gleaned from within individual entries at http://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Fungi_and_Yeast/Fungi_and_Yeast_Alphanumeric.aspx [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Atila et alia 2018. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology & Food Sciences, 7 (5) 532–536. Genetic Diversity of Hericium isolates by ISSRR and SRAP Markers.

Atlas of Living Australia website. Hericium reported from Australia [https://biocache.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Hericium] and images [https://bie.ala.org.au/species/2ec3db20-d8b2-4ea8-b0e2-b38e7b09507f#gallery] [Links confirmed 17 March 2019]

Balfour-Browne 1968. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany, 4: 7–141. Fungi of recent Nepal expeditions.

Banker 1906. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club, 12(2): 99–192. A contribution to a revision of the North American Hydnaceae.

Basham 1958. Canadian Journal of Botany, 36: 491–505. Decay of trembling aspen.

Berkeley 1860. Outlines of British Fungology, Vol. 2. pages 257–261. Hydnum.

Berry 1969. USDA, Forest Service, Research paper NE-126, Decay in the Upland Oak Stands of Kentucky.

Berry & Beaton 1972. USDA, Forest Service, Report NE-242, Decay in Oak in the Central Hardwood Region.

Berry & Lombard 1978. Forest Service Research Paper NE-413, Basidiomycetes Associated with Decay of Living Oak Trees. 

Binion et alia 2008. Macrofungi associated with oaks of eastern North America.
(From Glaeser & Smith 2013. Not presently accessible.)

BCRC = Bioresource Collection and Research Center; Taiwan Fungal Flora Knowledge [http://www.bcrc.firdi.org.tw/fungi/index.jsp] [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Bisko et alia 2016. IBK Mushroom Culture Collection.

Boddy et alia 2011. Fungal Ecology, 4: 163–173. Ecology of Hericium cirrhatum, H. coralloides, and H. erinaceus in the UK.

Bondartseva et alia 1998. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 33: 19—24. Aphyllophoroid fungi of old and primeval forests in the Kotavaara site of North Karelian biosphere reserve.

Boudier 1905. Icones mycologicae ou Iconographie des champignons de France principalement Discomycetes, Vol. 1, plate 166; Vol. 4, page 85. 

Bourdot & Galzin 1927. Hymènomycètes de France, pages 452—454. Dryodon.

BPI n/a. National Fungus Collections. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Brambilla & Sutton 1969. Host Index of Species Deposited in the Mycological Herbarium (WINF/M) of the Forest Research Laboratory, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Bresadola 1906. I Funghi Mangerecci e velenosi dell Europa Media, vol. 2, 112–113.

Buckland et alia 1949. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27: 312–331. Studies in forest pathology. VII. Decay in western hemlock and fir in the Franklin River area British Columbia.

Bulliard 1780. Herbier de la France, 1: page 304 & plate 34. HYDNE hérisson. HYDNUM erinaceus.

Bulliard 1791. Histoire des champignons de la France, vol. 1, p. 304, plate 34, HYDNE hérisson. HYDNUM erinaceus.

Burdsall et alia 1978. Mycotaxon, 7(1): 1–9. Morphological and Mating System Studies of a New Taxon of Hericium (Aphyllophorales—Hericiaceae) from the Southern Appalachians. 

Burova 1968 [as Бурова, Л.Г.]. Макромицеты парцелл елово-широколиственных лесов Подмосковья (на примере липо-ельника зеленчуково-волосистого [Macromycetes of spruce-deciduous forests parcels in Moscow region (using as an example of lime-spruce forest with Galeobdolon and Carex pilosa)]. Миколог.
(From Cybertruffle 2016. Not presently accessible.) 

BVN 2009. Bow Valley Naturalist Newsletter, Fall.

CABI Index of Fungi, at http://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/online-information-resources/index-of-fungi/ [Link confirmed 17 March 2018.]

Callan 1998. Diseases of Populus in British Columbia: a diagnostic manual.

Campbell et alia 1950. Plant Disease Reporter, 34: 128–134. Notes on some wood-decaying fungi of Georgia.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Cardoso et alia 1992. Cryptogamia Botanica, 2: 395–404. Aphyllophorales of Peneda-Geres National Park (Portugal).

Cash 1953. The Plant Disease Reporter. Supplement 219. A Check List of Alaskan Fungi.

Chen 2002. Forest fungi phytogeography: Forest fungi phytogeography of China, North America, and Siberia and international quarantine of tree pathogens. (From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Chen 2003. Forest fungi phytogeography: Forest fungi phytogeography of China, North America, and Siberia and international quarantine of tree pathogens. 

Chen et alia 2016. Persoonia, 37, 21–36. Global diversity and molecular systematics of Wrightoporia s.l. (Russulales, Basidiomycota).
(Paper included six Hericium species.)

Chevallier 1826. Flore générale des environs de Paris, 1: 270–279. Hydnum.

Colenso 1889. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 21: 43–80. A description of some newly-discovered cryptogamic plants; being a further contribution towards the making known the botany of New Zealand. Pages 79–80: Hydnum novae-zealandiae. [Spelling can sometimes be found amended to novae-zelandiae.]

Conkers 1935. Forest Insect Disease Survey. Canada Department Forestry, Annual District Report 14. (From Conners 1967. Not presently accessible.)

Conners 1967. Canada Department of Agriculture, Research Branch Publ. 1251. An Annotated Index of Plant Diseases in Canada and fungi recorded on plants in Alaska, Canada and Greenland.

Cooke 1871. Handbook of British Fungi, vol. 1, page 297. Hydnum coralloides, erinaceus & caputmedusae.

Cybertruffle’s Robigalia online. Observations of fungi and their associated organisms, at http://www.cybertruffle.org.uk/robigalia/eng/index.htm [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Dai et alia 2009. Mycosystema, 29(1):1–21. A revised checklist of edible fungi in China.

Das & Sharma 2009–2010. Kavaka, (37–38): 17–19. Hericium cirrhatum (Pers.) Nikol.; A new record to Indian mycoflora.

Das et alia 2011. Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 32(3): 285–293. A new species of Hericium from Sikkim Himalaya (India).

Das et alia 2013. IMA Fungus, 4(2): 359–369. Two new species of hydnoid-fungi from India.

DAVFP Collections Database Pacific Forestry Centre’s Forest Pathology Herbarium, at http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/herbarium [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Davidson et alia 1942. USDA Technical Bulletin 785, Fungi Causing Decay of Living Oaks in the Eastern United States and Their Cultural Identification.

Day & Nair ND. Host-Fungus Index of Wisconsin. http://www.uwgb.edu/biodiversity/resources/host-fungus-index/ [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Doğan & Öztürk 2006. Turkish Journal of Botany, 30: 193–207. Macrofungi and Their Distribution in Karaman Province, Turkey.

Doğan et alia 2005. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 37(2): 459–485. A Checklist of Aphyllophorales of Turkey.

Doll 1979. Feddes Repertorium, 90(1–2): 103–120. Die Verbreitung der gestielten Stachelpilze sowie das Vorkommen von Hericium, Creolophus cirrhatus, Spongipellis pachyodon, und Sistotrema confluens in Mecklenburg.

Domański et alia 1960. Monographiae Botanicae, 10(2): 150–237. Mycoflore Bieszczady Occidentales (Wetlina 1958).

Domański et alia 1960. Monographiae Botanicae, volume 15. Mikoflora Bieszadów Zachodnich. II. (Ustrzyki Górne, 1960).

Dudka et al. 2004. Fungi of the Crimean Peninsula. (Translated from Russian)
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

ECCF (European Council for Conservation of Fungi) 2001. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. T-PVS 34: page 21. Datasheets of threatened mushrooms of Europe, candidates for listing in Appendix I of the Convention. 

Ellett 1989. OSU, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Special Circular 128, Ohio Plant Disease Index.

EMBL (European Molecular Biology Laboratory) 2019. Geographically tagged INSDC sequences. Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/cndomv accessed via GBIF.org on 2019-02-20. https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1941096220. See also entry at ENA (European Nucleotide Archive) https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/LC062612
 [Links confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Eslyn 1962. Iowa Forest Science, 8: 263–276. Basidiomycetes and decay in silver maple stands of central Iowa.

Eslyn & Lombard 1983. Forest Product Journal, 33: 19–23. Decay in mine timbers. Part II. Basidiomycetes associated with decay of coal mine timbers. 

Eslyn & Lombard 1984. Mycologia, 76: 548–550. Fungi associated with decayed wood in stored willow and cottonwood logs.

Filip et alia 1984. Plant Diseases, 68: 992–993. Substantial decay in Pacific silver fir caused by Hericium abietis.

Filip et alia 1995. Manual 9. Forest Disease, Ecology & Management in Oregon.

French 1989. California Plant Disease Host Index.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Gilbertson et alia 1974. University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, 209: 1–48. Annotated check list and host index for Arizona wood-rotting fungi.

Ginns 1984. Mycotaxon, 20(1): 39–43. Hericium coralloides N. Amer. auct. H. americanum, and the European H. alpestre and H. coralloides.

Ginns 1985. Canadian Journal of Botany, 63(9): 1551–1563. Hericium in North America, cultural characteristics and mating behavior.

Ginns 1986. Research Board of Canadian Agriculture Publication 1813. Compendium of plant disease and decay fungi in Canada 1960–1980.

Gizhytska 1929 [as Гіжицька, З.К.]. Матеріяли до мікофльори України. Вісник Київського Ботанічного саду [Bulletin of the Kiev Botanic Garden] 10: 4–41.
(From Cybertruffle 2016. Not presently accessible.)

Glaeser & Smith 2010. Western Arborist, 32–46. Decay fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists.

Glaeser & Smith 2013. Western Arborist, 40–51. Decay fungi of riparian trees in the Southwestern U.S.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) at http://www.gbif.org) [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Global Catalogue of Microorganisms, at http://gcm.wfcc.info [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Global Fungal Red List Initiative, at http://iucn.ekoo.se/iucn/species_view/120231 [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Grand 1985. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Technical Bulletin, 240: 1–157. North Carolina Plant Disease Index. (From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Gray 1821. A Natural Arrangement of British plants, page 651: erinaceus; page 652: coralloides.

Groves 1981. Champignons comestibles et vénéneux du Canada.

Gulden & Stordal 1973. Blyttia, 31: 103–127. Om stilkete och kjukeformele piggsopper i Norge.
(From Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988. Not presently accessible.)

Hallenberg 1983. Mycotaxon, 18(1): 181–189. Hericium coralloides and H. alpestre (Basidiomycetes) in Europe.

Hallenberg et alia 2012. Mycological Progress, 12(2): 413–420. Species complexes in Hericium (Russulales, Agaricomycota) and a new species —Hericium rajchenbergii — from southern South America.

Haller 1768. Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae, vol. 3, page 148. ECHINUS ramosus, aculeis parallelis.

Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003. Hericium Tooth Fungi.

Hanlin 1966. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station, Mimeo Series, n. s., 260: 1–30. Host index to the Basidiomycetes of Georgia.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Hansen & Vesterholt 2002. Rødlistede svampe i Storstrøms Amt 2001. Page 135: Creolophus cirrhatus; 138: Hericium erinaceum; 174: Hericium coralloides.

Harrison 1961. The Stipitate Hydnums of Nova Scotia.

Harrison 1973. Michigan Botanist, 12: 177–194. The Genus Hericium in North America.

Harrison 1984. Mycologia, 76: 1121–1123. Creolophus in North America.

Henderson 1981. Trial field key to TOOTHED FUNGI in the Pacific Northwest. (Pacific Northwest Key Council), at http://www.svims.ca [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Heredia 1989. Acta Botánica Mexicana, 7: 1–18. Estudio de los hongos de la reserva de la biosfera el cielo, tamaulipas consideraciones sobre da distribucion y ecologia de alguinas especies.
(This was apparently a mis-citation by USDA.)

Hermansson 1997. Windahlia, 22: 67–79. Polyporaceae s. lat. and some other fungi in Pechora-Ilych Zapovednik, Russia. (From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Hibbett et alia 2000. Nature, 407: 506–508. Evolutionary instability of ectomycorrhizal symbioses in basidiomycetes.

Horst 2013. Westcott’s Plant Disease Handbook, pages 489–490. Hericium erinaceus.

Hubregtse 2018. Fungi in Australia. Part 4. Basidiomycota, Agaricomycotina – II, pages 226—227 & Part 9. Photographic guide to non-gilled fungi, page 20. Hericium coralloides.

Hyams 1900. North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts Bulletin, 177: 27–77. Edible mushrooms of North Carolina.

Index Species Fungorum, accessed via CABI at http://www.speciesfungorum.org and Kew http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp [Links confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Jussieu ex Barrelier 1714. Plantae per Galliam Hispaniam et Italiam observatae iconibus aeneis exhibitae, page 118, fig. 1257. Fungus ramos. Abietin niveus

Karadelev 1993. Fungi Macedonici, I. Contribution to the knowledge of wood-destroying fungi in the Republic of Macedonia. 

Karun & Sridhar 2016. Studies in Fungi, 1(1): 135–141. Two new records of hydnoid fungi from the Western Ghats of India.

Kaya 2009. Turkish Journal of Botany, 33: 429–437. Macrofungi of Huzurlu high plateau (Gaziantep-Turkey).

Karadzic 2006. Glasnik Sumarskog fakulteta, 93: 83–96. Contribution to the study of fungi in the genera Sparassis Fr. and Hericium Pers. in our forests Dragan,

Keizer 2008. De soorten van het leefgebiedenbeleid, 55–57, (Chapter 14) Echte Pruikzwam Hericium Erinaceum (Bull. ; Fr.) Pers.

Kew Gardens, at http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/hericium-erinaceus-bearded-tooth [Link was 404 on 9 Dec 2018.]

Kimmey & Stevenson 1957. The Plant Disease Reporter, Supplement 247, 87–98. A Forest Disease Survey of Alaska.

Kobayashi 2007. Index of fungi inhabiting woody plants in Japan. Host, Distribution and Literature. (From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988. Karstenia, 27: 43–70. Hydnaceous fungi of the Hericiaceae, Auriscalpiaceae and Climacodontaceae in northwestern Europe.

Kreisel 1987. Pilzflora der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Basidiomycetes (Gallert-, Hut- und Bauchpilze).
(From Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988. Not presently accessible.)

Kroeger & Berch 2017. British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, Technical Report, TR108. Macrofungus Species of British Columbia.

Kunca & Čiliak 2015. Czech Mycology, 67(1): 95–118. Abstracts of the International Symposium Fungi of Central European Old-Growth Forests, page 107. Ecology, incidence and indication value of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia and the Western Carpathians.

Kunca & Čiliak 2017. Data in Brief, 12: 156–160. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia.

Kunca & Čiliak 2017. Fungal Ecology, 27(B): 189–192. Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia.

Kunca et alia 2018. Czech Mycology,70(2): 211–224. Fruitbody production of Hericium erinaceus and its distribution in Slovakia.

Kuo. Michael Kuo’s Mushroom Expert website: http://www.mushroomexpert.com [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Lacheva 2014. International Journal of Microbiology and Mycology, 2(3): 37–48. A case study on wood decaying macrofungi in the Southwestern slopes of Vasilyovska Mountain, Forebalkan, Bulgaria.

Lai K (2012). The National Checklist of Taiwan. Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF). (http://taibnet.sinica.edu.tw) [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Larsson & Larsson 2003. Mycologia, 95(6): 1037–1065. Phylogenetic relationships of russuloid basidiomycetes with emphasis on aphyllophoralean taxa.

Laursen & Seppelt 2009. Common Interior Alaska Cryptogams, pages 88–89.  Hericium coralloides.

Lawrence & Hiratsuka 1972. Northern Forest Research Centre, Information Report NOR-X-27. Forest fungi collected in Yoho National Park, British Columbia. 

Letellier 1826. Histoire et Description des Champignons. 112–113: Hericium caput medusae; 113–114: Hericium erinaceus; 114–115: Hericium coralloides. 

Lindsey & Gilbertson 1978. Bibliotheca Mycologica, 63. Basidiomycetes that decay aspen in North America.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Lisiewska 2006. Acta Mycologica, 41(2): 241–252. Endangered macrofungi of selected nature reserves in Wielkopolska.

Lowe 1969. Canadian Forest Service, Victoria, Report B-X-32. Check list and host index of bacteria, fungi, and mistletoes of British Columbia.

Lowe 1977. Can. Forestry Service, Victoria. Report BC-X-32. (From Ginns 1986.]

Maas Geesteranus 1959. Persoonia, 1(1): 115–147. The stipitate Hydnums of the Netherlands — IV. 

MacKay 1904. Proceedings and Transactions of the Nova Scotia Institute of Science, 12: 119–138. Fungi of Nova Scotia: a provisional list.

Magasi 1966. Canadian Forest Service, Fredericton. Report M—X—7. Index to the Forest Fungi of the Maritimes Region.

Mallams et alia 2010. USDA, Forest Insect & Disease Leaflet 53. Decays of White, Grand, and Red Firs.

Maloy 1968. Plant Disease Reporter, 52: 489–492. Decay fungi in young grand fir. (From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Manaaki Whenus Landcare Research Databases — Ngā Harore o Aotearoa – New Zealand Fungi,
https://nzfungi2.landcareresearch.co.nz/default.aspx?selected=NameDetails&Action=Display&CancelScript=1&TabNum=0&NameId=7A6A7650-0256-4DB9-A9B5-9120C935A612&StateId=&Sort=0 [Links confirmed on 17 March 2019.]
Their link to was unresponsive.]

Maneval 1937. University of Missouri Studies, Sci. Ser. 12. A List of the Missouri Fungi.
(From USDA ARS GRIN. Not presently accessible.)

Marchand 1975–1976. Champignons du Nord et du Midi. Vol. 3.  (From Rastetter 1985; Not presently accessible.)

Martin & Gilbertson 1980. Mycotaxon, 10(2): 479–501. Synopsis of wood-rotting fungi on spruce in North America: III.

Massee 1892. British Fungus Flora, vol. 1. Pages 156–157: Hericium coralloides; 157: Hericium erinaceum; 157: Hericium caput-medusae.

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Merino Alcántara 2011. Micobotánica Jaén, 4 pages. Hericium alpestre. at http://www.micobotanicajaen.com/Revista/Articulos/DMerinoA/Aportaciones023/Hericium%20alpestre.pdf [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

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Mir et alia 2017. Micobotánica-Jaén, 12(2): ONLINE. Aportación al Catálogo Micológico de las Illes Balears. Menorca, III. See at http://www.micobotanicajaen.com/Revista/Articulos/JLMelis/MenorcaIII/APORTACION%20AL%20CATALOGO%20MICOLOGICO%20III%20v2r.pdf  [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

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Mori et alia 2008. Phytotherapy Research, 23(3): 367–372. Improving Effects of the Mushroom Yamabushitake, Hericium erinaceus, on Mild Cognitive Impairment; A Double blind Placebo controlled Clinical Trial.
And also in
Mori et alia 2008. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 31 (9): 1727–1732. Nerve Growth Factor Inducing Activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 Human Astrocytoma Cells.

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Mycology.su (The Red Book of Russia Plants), at https://mycology.su/category/fungi/basidiomycota/agaricomycetes/russulales/hericiaceae/hericium  Род: Гериций (Hericium) [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Mycoweb, at http://www.mykoweb.com [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

Nakasone 1996. in McMinn et alia USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report, GTR-SE94, Biodiversity and Coarse woody Debris in Southern Forests. pages 35–42: Diversity of Lignicolous Basidiomycetes in Coarse Woody Debris.

Nanagulian & Senn-Irlet 2002. Some Dates [sic] About Distribution and Conservation of Threatened Mushrooms in Armenia.

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Nikolajeva 1961. Flora plantarum cryptogamarum URSS. Fungi. Familia Hydnaceae, 6(2): 1–432. Page 238: Hericium schestunovii.
(Cited by many references; book is not presently accessible.) Николаева Т. Л. Флора споровых растений СССР. Том VI. Ежовиковые грибы. Грибы (2). — М. – Л.: Издательство Академии наук СССР, 1961. — 433 с; NIKOLAEVA, Taisiya Lvovna (1961). In: SAVIČ V. (ed.), Флора споровых растений СССР [Flora plantarum cryptogamarum URSS 6. Fungi 2. Familia Hydnaceae]. 6(2): 1–432 . Moscow; Leningrad

Nordin 1954. Canadian Journal of Botany, 32(1): 221–258. Studies in Forest Pathology. XIII. Decay in Sugar Maple in the Otttowa-Huron and Algoma Extension Forest Region of Ontario.

Nuß 1973. Westfälische Pilzbriefe, 9: 130–134. Über die Verbreitung des Alpen-Stachelbartes (Hericium coralloides) in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

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Pallua et alia 2012. Analyst, 137: 1584–1595. Morphological and tissue characterization of the medicinal fungus Hericium coralloides by a structural and molecular imaging platform.

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Park et alia 2014. Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 14(4): 816–821. Molecular Identification of Asian Isolates of Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceum, by Phylogenetic Analysis of Nuclear ITS rDNA. 

Paulet 1793. Traite des champignons, vol. 2, pages 424–428. 

Pegler 2003. Mycologist, 17(3): 120–121. Useful fungi of the world: the monkey head fungus.

Persoon 1794. (In Roemer’s) Neues Magazin für die Botanik, pages 151 & 153, page 153: erinaceus.

Persoon 1797. Commentatio de Fungis Clavaeformibus, page 27: erinaceus.

Persoon 1801. Synopsis Methodica Fungorum, page 560: erinaceus.

Persoon 1818. Traite sur les Champignons Comestibles. (Typo erinaceum appears on page 251). 

Persoon 1825. Mycologia Europaea, volume 2, page 153: erinaceus.

Pilley & Trieselmann 1969. Canadian Forestry Service, Sault Ste Marie. Report O-X-108. A synoptic catalogue of cryptogams deposited in the Ontario region herbarium II. Basidiomycetes.

Pollini 1824. Flora Veronensis quam in prodromum flora, vol. 3. pages 595–597.

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Preston & Dosdall 1955. USDA, Plant Disease Epidemiology & Identification Section, Spec. Publ. 8. Minnesota Plant Diseases.
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Rastetter 1983. Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, 2: 161–188. Fünfter Beitrag zur Pilzflora des Oberelsaß.

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Roger’s mushrooms, at http://www.rogersmushrooms.com [Server not responding in Nov. 2018 and Jan. 2019. Apparently now exists as a phone app.]

Rupcic et alia 2018. International Journal of Molecular Science, 2018, 19, 740, 12 pages. Two New Cyathane Diterpenoids from Mycelial Cultures of the Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus and the Rare Species, Hericium flagellum.

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Safonov 2014. European Researcher, 83(9–2): 1671–1676. Wood-destroying Basidiomycetes found on the elder woods in the South Urals (Orenburg Oblast, Russia).

Schmid-Heckel 1988. Forschungsberichte Nationalpark Berchtesgaden, 15: 1–136. Pilze in den Berchtesgadener Alpen.

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Sikora & Neubauer 2015. Chrońmy Przyrodę Ojczystą, 71(5): 368–379. Nowe stanowiska i występowanie soplówki jeżowatej. Hericium erinaceus w Polsce.

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Singh et alia 2017. Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology, 7(3): 208–226. Wild edible mushrooms from high elevations in the Garhwal Himalaya—II.

Singh & Das 2019. Nova Hedwigia, 108(3–4): 505–515. Hericium rajendrae sp. nov. (Hericiaceae, Russulales): an edible mushroom from Indian Himalaya. 

Slippers et alia 2000. Mycologia 92(5): 955–963. Relationships among Amylostereum species associated with siricid woodwasps inferred from mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences.
[Included Hericium ramosum only as an outlier; gave no indication as to its point of origin.] 

Snowarski 1997–2019. Grzyby Polski:  Creolophus cirrhatus: https://www.grzyby.pl/gatunki/Creolophus_cirrhatus.htm,  Hericium coralloides: https://www.grzyby.pl/gatunki/Hericium_coralloides.htm; Hericium erinaceus: https://www.grzyby.pl/gatunki/Hericium_erinaceum.htm; Hericium flagellum: https://www.grzyby.pl/gatunki/Hericium_flagellum.htm.

Sokół et alia 2016. Acta Mycology, 50(2): article 1069. 18-pages. Biology, cultivation and medicinal functions of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum.

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Stevenson 1886. British Fungi, vol. 2. 239–240: Hericium coralloides; 240: Hericium erinaceum; 240: Hericium caput-medusae.

Stevenson 2016. Wild Edible Food. https://www.ediblewildfood.com/blog/2016/10/lions-mane-edible-and-medicinal-fungi/ [Link confirmed 12 April 2019.]

Sultana & Qreshi 2007. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39 (7): 2629–2649. Check List of Basidiomycetes (Aphyllo. and Phragmo.) of Kaghan Valley-11.

Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006. A Field Guide to Insects and Diseases of California Oaks, (USDA PSW GTR-197), pp. 99–101. Hedgehog mushroom, Hericium erinaceus f. erinaceus.

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Tanchaud 2011. Hericium cirrhatum, at www.mycocharentes.fr/pdf1/82%20115%201%20.pdf [Link confirmed 17 March 2019.]

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Thongbai et alia 2015. Mycological Progress, 14:91 (23 pages) Review: Hericium erinaceus, an amazing medicinal mushroom.

Tidwell 1990. Index of Diseases and Microorganisms Associated with Eucalyptus in California.
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Tortič 1998. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 33: 139—146. An attempt to a list of indicator fungi (Aphyllophorales) for old forests of beech and fir in former Yugoslavia.

Trattinnick 1805. Fungi Austriaci, 191–196. XXV. Hydnum erinaceus Bull.

Trout 2004–2015. “Local observation” was for environs of Boonville, Philo & Yorkville, in Anderson Valley, Mendocino County, California.

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USDA ARS GRIN Fungal Databases. Information gleaned via individual species name searches at https://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/nomen/new_frameNomenclatureReport.cfm [Link confirmed 21 Feb 2019.]

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Yurchenko 2002. Mycena, 2(1): 31–68. Non-poroid aphyllophoraceous fungi proposed to the third edition of the Red Data Book of Belarus. [Hericium coralloides: pages 47—50.]

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Ziller 1961. Interim Report. Forest Entomology and Pathology Laboratory, Victoria, BC. A List of Pathogens on Pinus, Populus, and Quercus in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory.

Zutshi & Gupta 2013. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 51: 361–363. Occurrence and characterization of Hericium coralloides: a rare wild edible mushroom from Doda region of J & K, India.
(Cited by Karun & Sridhar 2016; paper was unavailable. Could only access its abstract.)

 Sridhar 2016; paper was unavailable. Could only access its abstract.)

Hericium ptychogasteroides

Hericium ptychogasteroides

[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. Molecular work not located.]

“? Quercus” “on dead wood” CABI Index of Fungi 2: 311 citing Nikolaeva 1956 Bot. Zh. SSSR 41: 999 (Primorsky Krai in far eastern Russia; Maritime Territory 45.000000°; 135.000000°).

Name means “resembling a folded stomach”. 

Unable to access the original description.  From the Red Book of Russia Plants at Mycology.su:
Fruit body resembled a pincushion.
Teeth covering almost entire surface of fruiting body.
Basidia and basidiospores absent.

Maas Geesteranus made a helpful comment: “In the description, […] Nikolaeva stated that her species is based on an imperfect, i.e. conidiabearing, state. It is difficult, if possible at all, to ascertain to which species the corresponding perfect state would belong, but with Boudier’s plate in mind, H. ptychogasteroides may possibly be thought of as the conidial state of H. erinaceus.”

Stalpers 1996 suggested this name was a “nomen dubium, cf. Hericium erinaceus Bull.” [Nikolajeva, 1956, Botaniceskij zurnal SSSR, 41: 999, LEG] 

Does not appear to have been reported a second time.

Hericium fimbriatum

Hericium fimbriatum
[Given as an accepted species in Index Species Fungorum but most authorities reject. Molecular work not located.]

Considering Banker’s description, the very un-Hericium-like spores, plus his comparison of this to H. crocea (= Sarcodontia crocea); Meruliaceae), the acceptance of this as a valid name seems worth questioning.

ISF also mentions Saccardo 1912 Sylloge Fungorum 21: 373 as a corroborating reference but Saccardo is essentially just repeating Banker 1906 in Latin.

“On a decaying stump of some hard wood, between the bark and the wood.” Banker 1906 (Penn-sylvania, USA).


Hericium erinaceus ssp. erinaceo-abietis

Hericium erinaceus ssp. erinaceo-abietis

[This name appeared as Hericium erinaceum ssp. erinaceo-abietis.]

Quercus sp. Live tree. Burdsall et alia 1978 (Virginia, USA).

Burdsall’s reasoning:

1) “Hericium erinaceum has large ovoid basidiocarps with densely crowded pendent teeth up to 3 cm long and H. abietis basidiocarps are loosely organized systems of branches with less crowded pendent teeth. Hericium erinaceum subsp. erinaceo-abietis, on the other hand, is an irregularly shaped, solid, nodulose mass with small teeth (up to 3 mm long) covering the entire surface and protruding in all directions.”

2) “The basidiospores of H. abietis are 5-6 x 4-5 μm while those of H. erinaceum subsp. erinaceo-abietis are 6-7.5 x 4.5-6 μm.”

3) “The two also differ in structure of tooth trama.” 

4) “Hericium erinaceum subsp. erinaceo-abietis lacks the broad (up to 15 μm diam) thick-walled hyphae (walls up to 5 μm thick) which are found in H. erinaceum and the inflated cells (up to 15 μm diam) that have little wall thickening.” 

4) “In culture, H. erinaceum subsp. erinaceo-abietis grows about half as fast as H. erinaceum on malt extract agar at 25 C and about twice as fast at 32 C.” 

5) “The new subspecies and H. abietis grow equally well at 25 C on malt extract agar but H. abietis does not grow at 32 C while the new subspecies does.”

6) “The pairings between OKM 15159 single spore isolates and those of H. erinaceum [from Maryland (OKM 4950) and Arizona (JPL 317)] were totally compatible. Similar pairings between OKM 15159 single spore isolates and those from three different collections of H. abietis (a species found only in the northwestern U.S. and western Canada), however, showed partial, but not complete, compatibility as expressed by clamp connection formation.”

Maas Geestereanus’ comment concerning H. ptychogasteroides being the immature conidial state of erinaceus may be pertinent in regard to this? 

Yellowish is a normal aging color, becoming beige in its final stages of decline and collapse; orange to brown commonly occurs from oxidizing in old age or drying. Chocolate brown or grey indicates an unsuccessful battle with a contaminant. Pink or salmon are colorations that can occur under some conditions of warm temperatures or excess moisture. With sun, heat and dryness it can even become decidedly reddish. These are most often surface colors and reveal a white interior. 

Salmon, yellow, and pink can also occasionally be seen in young cultivated H. erinaceus and is not at all uncommon in young H. americanum. It is most often outgrown by the time that the teeth develop. Excess moisture stimulates its appearance in cultivation.

This color also can occur in the wild. For example the salmon-pink lion’s mane, probably also H. americanum, at Chris Mabberly’s website given as a coralloides.

It tends to be the most noticeable before the teeth have fully developed which not uncommonly looks very much like the photograph in Burdsall. Due to the coloration, the spore size and the growth form, Burdsall’s fungus was very likely an immature  americanum.

“In the late 1970’s a new taxon was described, i.e., Hericium erinaceum subsp. erinaceo abietis. This taxon differed from the typical H. erinaceum, e.g., by morphological traits of the fruitbody, spore size and mycelium growth rate. Studies showed that the described subspecies was a sterile hybrid between H. erinaceum and H. abietis [19].”

Sokół et al 2016.

It is worth questioning that conclusion. How such a mating of H. erinaceus with a species that is restricted to the Pacific North-West would have occurred in the first place has its own hurdles. The progeny then being found on a tree in Virginia?  It is worth looking closer.

Ginns appeared to add some support but he actually stopped two important steps short of actually evaluating the matter. His words on the matter are noteworthy: “Further, subsp. erinaceoabietis was compatible with H. abietis (No. 46) and H. erinaceus (No. 34) but was not tested against H. americanum or H. coralloides.” [Boldface added.]

It is this author’s suspicion that Ginns might have found compatibility had he tested it with americanum.

Most peculiar with regards to the claim of this being a hybrid is that Burdsall had actually dismissed that idea since he could not produce clamp formations with using single spore isolates of the two putative parent species. His comments: “The possibility that OKM 15159 was a hybrid of H. erinaceum x H. abietis was considered but in no case were clamp connections formed when single spore isolates of these two species were paired.” 

It is worth adding that IF H. erinaceum and H. abietis could be hybridized, the use of mating experiments for identifying the Hericium species would seem to be conceptually invalid.

There has been no confirmatory find reported.