Abrego et alia 2017. Fungal Ecology, 27: 168–174. Understanding the distribution of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech reserves from species-specific habitat models.

Afyon et alia 2004. Turkish Journal of Botany, 28: 351–360. Macrofungi of Sinop Province.

Afyon et alia 2009. Mycotaxon, 93: 319–322. A study of wood decaying macrofungi of the western Black Sea Region, Turkey.

ALA = Atlas of Living Australia 

Allen et alia 1996. Common Tree Diseases of British Columbia, 38–39. Heart rots: Yellow pitted rot. (Hericium abietis).

Arnolds 2001. In Moore et alia Fungal Conservation. Issues and Solutions. pages 64–80. The future of fungi in Europe: threats, conservation and management. (Digital version was in 2008.)

Astapenko 1990 [as Астапенко, В.В.]. Консортивные связи дереворазрушающих грибов в Среднем Приангарье [Symbiotic relations of wood-destroying fungi in the middle Angara river region]. Микология и Фитопатология [Mycology & Phytopathology] 24(4): 289–298. [Cited by Cybertruffle 2016; paper is presently unavailable to us.]

Astapenko & Kutafyeva 1990 [as Астапенко, В.В.; Кутафьева, Н.П.]. Консортивные связи макромицетов с видами рода Betula L. [Symbiotic relationships of larger fungi with species of Betula L.]. Микология и Фитопатология [Mycology & Phytopathology] 24(1): 3–9. [Cited by Cybertruffle 2016; paper is presently unavailable to us.] 

ATCC product information, data gleaned from within individual entries at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018]

Atlas of Living Australia website. Hericium reported from Australia [] and images [] [Links confirmed 4 Jan 2019]

Banker 1906. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club, 12(2): 99–192. A contribution to a revision of the North American Hydnaceae.

Berry 1969. USDA, Forest Service, Research paper NE-126, Decay in the Upland Oak Stands of Kentucky.

Berry & Beaton 1972. USDA, Forest Service, Report NE-242, Decay in Oak in the Central Hardwood Region.

Berry & Lombard 1978. Forest Service Research Paper NE-413, Basidiomycetes Associated with Decay of Living Oak Trees. 

Binion et alia 2008. Macrofungi associated with oaks of eastern North America. [Cited by Glaeser & Smith 2013 but unavailable to us.]

Bisko et alia 2016. IBK Mushroom Culture Collection.

Boddy et alia 2011. Fungal Ecology, 4: 163–173. Ecology of Hericium cirrhatum, H. coralloides, and H. erinaceus in the UK.

Bondartseva et alia 1998. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 33: 19—24. Aphyllophoroid fungi of old and primeval forests in the Kotavaara site of North Karelian biosphere reserve.

Bourdot & Galzin 1927. Hymènomycètes de France, pages 452—454. Dryodon.

Brambilla & Sutton 1969. Host Index of Species Deposited in the Mycological Herbarium (WINF/M) of the Forest Research Laboratory, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Bresadola 1906. I Funghi Mangerecci e velenosi dell Europa Media, vol. 2, 112–113.

Bulliard 1780. Herbier de la France, 1: page 304 & plate 34. HYDNE hérisson. HYDNUM erinaceus

Bulliard 1791. Histoire des champignons de la France, vol. 1, p. 304, plate 34, HYDNE hérisson. HYDNUM erinaceus.

Burdsall et alia 1978. Mycotaxon, 7(1): 1–9. Morphological and Mating System Studies of a New Taxon of Hericium (Aphyllophorales-Hericiaceae) from the Southern Appalachians. 

Burova 1968 [as Бурова, Л.Г.]. Макромицеты парцелл елово-широколиственных лесов Подмосковья (на примере липо-ельника зеленчуково-волосистого [Macromycetes of spruce-deciduous forests parcels in Moscow region (using as an example of lime-spruce forest with Galeobdolon and Carex pilosa)]. Миколог. [Cited by Cybertruffle 2016; book is presently unavailable to us.] 

BVN 2009. Bow Valley Naturalist Newsletter, Fall.

CABI Index of Fungi, at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Chevallier 1826. Flore générale des environs de Paris, 1: 270–279. Hydnum.

Colenso 1889. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 21: 43-80. A description of some newly-discovered cryptogamic plants; being a further contribution towards the making known the botany of New Zealand. Pages 79–80: Hydnum novae-zealandiae. [Spelling can sometimes be found amended to novae-zelandiae.]

Cooke 1871. Handbook of British Fungi, vol. 1, page 297. Hydnum coralloides, erinaceus & caputmedusae.

Cybertruffle’s Robigalia online. Observations of fungi and their associated organisms, at [Link confirmed 19 Jan 2019.]

Das & Sharma 2009-2010. Kavaka, (37–38): 17–19. Hericium cirrhatum Pers Nikol. A new record to Indian mycoflora.

Das et alia 2011. Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 32(3): 285–293. A new species of Hericium from Sikkim Himalaya (India).

Das et alia 2013. IMA Fungus, 4(2): 359–369. Two new species of hydnoid-fungi from India.

DAVFP Collections Database Pacific Forestry Centre’s Forest Pathology Herbarium, at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Davidson et alia 1942. USDA Technical Bulletin 785, Fungi Causing Decay of Living Oaks in the Eastern United States and Their Cultural Identification.

Doğan & Öztürk 2006. Turkish Journal of Botany, 30: 193–207. Macrofungi and Their Distribution in Karaman Province, Turkey

Doğan et alia 2005. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 37(2): 459–485. A Checklist of Aphyllophorales of Turkey.

Doll 1979. Feddes Repertorium, 90(1–2): 103–120. Die Verbreitung der gestielten Stachelpilze sowie das Vorkommen von Hericium, Creolophus cirrhatus, Spongipellis pachyodon, und Sistotrema confluens in Mecklenburg.

Domański et alia 1960. Monographiae Botanicae, 10(2): 150-237. Mycoflore Bieszczady Occidentales (Wetlina 1958).

Domański et alia 1960. Monographiae Botanicae, volume 15. Mikoflora Bieszadów Zachodnich. II. (Ustrzyki Górne, 1960).

ECCF (European Council for Conservation of Fungi) 2001. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. T-PVS 34: page 21. Datasheets of threatened mushrooms of Europe, candidates for listing in Appendix I of the Convention. 

Ginns 1984. Mycotaxon, 20(1): 39–43. Hericium coralloides N. Amer. auct. H. americanum, and the European H. alpestre and H. coralloides.

Ginns 1985. Canadian Journal of Botany, 63(9): 1551–1563. Hericium in North America, cultural characteristics and mating behavior.

Gizhytska 1929 [as Гіжицька, З.К.]. Матеріяли до мікофльори України. Вісник Київського Ботанічного саду [Bulletin of the Kiev Botanic Garden] 10: 4–41. [Cited by Cybertruffle 2016; paper is presently unavailable to us.]

Glaeser & Smith 2010. Western Arborist, 32–46. Decay fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists.

Glaeser & Smith 2013. Western Arborist, 40–51. Decay fungi of riparian trees in the Southwestern U.S.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) at [Link confirmed 25 January 2019.]

Global Catalogue of Microorganisms, at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Global Fungal Red List Initiative, at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018]

Gray 1821. A Natural Arrangement of British plants, page 651: erinaceus; page 652: coralloides.

Groves 1981. Champignons comestibles et vénéneux du Canada.

Gulden & Stordal 1973. Blyttia, 31: 103–127. Om stilkete och kjukeformele piggsopper i Norge. [Cited by Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988 but unavailable to us.]

Hallenberg 1983. Mycotaxon, 18(1): 181–189. Hericium coralloides and H. alpestre (Basidiomycetes) in Europe.

Hallenberg et alia 2012. Mycological Progress, 12(2): 413–420. Species complexes in Hericium (Russulales, Agaricomycota) and a new species —Hericium rajchenbergii — from southern South America.

Haller 1768. Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae, vol. 3, page 148. ECHINUS ramosus, aculeis parallelis.

Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003. Hericium Tooth Fungi.

Hansen & Vesterholt 2002. Rødlistede svampe i Storstrøms Amt 2001. Page 135: Creolophus cirrhatus; 138: Hericium erinaceum; 174: Hericium coralloides.

Harrison 1961. The Stipitate Hydnums of Nova Scotia.

Harrison 1973. Michigan Botanist, 12: 177–194. The Genus Hericium in North America.

Harrison 1984. Mycologia, 76: 1121–1123. Creolophus in North America.

Henderson 1981. Trial field key to TOOTHED FUNGI in the Pacific Northwest. (Pacific Northwest Key Council), at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Hibbett et alia 2000. Nature, 407: 506–508. Evolutionary instability of ectomycorrhizal symbioses in basidiomycetes.

Horst 2013. Westcott’s Plant Disease Handbook, pages 489–490. Hericium erinaceus.

Hubregtse 2018. Fungi in Australia. Part 4. Basidiomycota, Agaricomycotina – II, pages 226—227 & Part 9. Photographic guide to non-gilled fungi, page 20. Hericium coralloides.

Hyams 1900. North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts Bulletin, 177: 27–77. Edible mushrooms of North Carolina.

Index Species Fungorum, at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018]

Jussieu ex Barrelier 1714. Plantae per Galliam Hispaniam et Italiam observatae iconibus aeneis exhibitae, page 118, fig. 1257. Fungus ramos. Abietin niveus

Karadelev 1993. Fungi Macedonici, I. Contribution to the knowledge of wood-destroying fungi in the Republic of Macedonia. 

Karun & Sridhar 2016. Studies in Fungi, 1(1): 135–141. Two new records of hydnoid fungi from the Western Ghats of India.

Kaya 2009. Turkish Journal of Botany, 33: 429–437. Macrofungi of Huzurlu high plateau (Gaziantep-Turkey).

Keizer 2008. De soorten van het leefgebiedenbeleid, 55–57, (Chapter 14) Echte Pruikzwam Hericium Erinaceum (Bull. ; Fr.) Pers.

Kew Gardens, at [Link was 404 on 9 Dec 2018]

Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988. Karstenia, 27: 43–70. Hydnaceous fungi of the Hericiaceae, Auriscalpiaceae and Climacodontaceae in northwestern Europe.

Kreisel 1987. Pilzflora der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Basidiomycetes (Gallert-, Hut- und Bauchpilze). [Cited by Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988 but thusfar has been unavailable.]

Kunca & Čiliak 2015. Czech Mycology, 67(1): 95–118. Abstracts of the International Symposium Fungi of Central European Old-Growth Forests, page 107. Ecology, incidence and indication value of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia and the Western Carpathians.

Kunca & Čiliak 2017. Data in Brief, 12: 156–160. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia.

Kunca & Čiliak 2017. Fungal Ecology, 27(B): 189–192. Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia.

Kuo. Michael Kuo’s Mushroom Expert website: [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018]

Lacheva 2014. International Journal of Microbiology and Mycology, 2(3): 37–48. A case study on wood decaying macrofungi in the Southwestern slopes of Vasilyovska Mountain, Forebalkan, Bulgaria.

Lai K (2012). The National Checklist of Taiwan. Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF). ( [Link confirmed 25 January 2019.]

Larsson & Larsson 2003. Mycologia, 95(6): 1037–1065. Phylogenetic relationships of russuloid basidiomycetes with emphasis on aphyllophoralean taxa.

Letellier 1826. Histoire Et Description Des Champignons.  : 112–113: Hericium caput medusae; 113–114: Hericium erinaceus; 114–115: Hericium coralloides. 

Lisiewska 2006. Acta Mycologica, 41(2): 241–252. Endangered macrofungi of selected nature reserves in Wielkopolska.

Maas Geesteranus 1959. Persoonia, 1(1): 115–147. The stipitate Hydnums of the Netherlands — IV. 

Massee 1892. British Fungus Flora, vol. 1. Pages 156–157: Hericium coralloides; 157: Hericium erinaceum; 157: Hericium caput-medusae.

Merino Alcántara 2011. Micobotánica Jaén, 4 pages. Hericium alpestre. at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018]

Michel 2007. Contribution à la connaissance de la fonge lignicole du site de Saint-Daumas, page 24.

Micheli 1729. Nova plantarum genera juxta Tournafortii methodum disposita, page 122. Agaricum esculentum, album, cespitosum, multifidum & denticulatum, denticulis asperis.

Miller 1935. Mycologia, 27(4): 357–373. The Hydnaceae of Iowa. IV. The Genera Steccherinum, Auriscalpium, Hericium, Dentinum and Calodon.

Miller et alia 2006. Mycologia, 98(6): 960–970. Perspectives in the new Russulales.

Mir et alia 2017. Micobotánica-Jaén, 12(2): ONLINE. Aportación al Catálogo Micológico de las Illes Balears. Menorca, III. See at [Link confirmed 19 dec. 2018.]

Molina et alia 1993. USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-309. Biology, Ecology, and Social Aspects of Wild Edible Mushrooms in the Forests of the Pacific Northwest: A Preface to Managing Commercial Harvest.

Monica 2014. [Link was 404 on 9 Dec 2018.] [also (Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.)]

Morel Mushroom Hunting Club (i.e. Chris Matherly), at [Link was 404 on 9 Dec 2018.] [As herricium coralloides var. rosea.]

Mori et alia 2008. Phytotherapy Research, 23(3): 367–372. Improving Effects of the Mushroom Yamabushitake, Hericium erinaceus, on Mild Cognitive Impairment; A Double blind Placebo controlled Clinical Trial.
And also in
Mori et alia 2008. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 31 (9): 1727–1732. Nerve Growth Factor Inducing Activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 Human Astrocytoma Cells.

Mycobank at [Link confirmed 19 Dec. 2018.] 

Mycoweb, at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Nakasone 1996. in McMinn et alia USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report, GTR-SE94, Biodiversity and Coarse woody Debris in Southern Forests. pages 35–42: Diversity of Lignicolous Basidiomycetes in Coarse Woody Debris.

Nanagulian & Senn-Irlet 2002. Some Dates [sic] About Distribution and Conservation of Threatened Mushrooms in Armenia.

Nikolajeva 1961. Flora plantarum cryptogamarum URSS. Fungi. Familia Hydnaceae, 6(2): 1–432.  Page 238: Hericium schestunovii. [cited by many references; book is not presently available to us.]

Nuß 1973. Westfälische Pilzbriefe, 9: 130–134. Über die Verbreitung des Alpen-Stachelbartes (Hericium coralloides) in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

Oudemans 1919–1924. Enumeratio systematica Fungorum.

Ostry et alia 2011. USDA, Forest Service. GTR-79. Field Guide to Common Macrofungi in Eastern Forests and Their Ecosystem Functions.

Otani 1957. Journal of Japanese Botany [Shokubutsu Kenkyu Zasshi], 32(10): 303–306. On a new species of Hericium found in Japan.

Park et alia 2014. Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 14(4): 816–821. Molecular Identification of Asian Isolates of Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceum, by Phylogenetic Analysis of Nuclear ITS rDNA. 

Paulet 1793. Traite des champignons, vol. 2, pages 424–428. 

Pegler 2003. Mycologist, 17(3): 120–121. Useful fungi of the world: the monkey head fungus.

Persoon 1794. (In Roemer’s) Neues Magazin für die Botanik, pages 151 & 153, page 153: erinaceus.

Persoon 1818. Traite sur les Champignons Comestibles. (Typo erinaceum appears on page 251). 

Persoon 1797. Commentatio de Fungis Clavaeformibus, page 27: erinaceus.

Persoon 1801. Synopsis Methodica Fungorum, page 560: erinaceus.

Persoon 1825. Mycologia Europaea, volume 2, page 153: erinaceus.

Rastetter 1983. Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, 2: 161–188. Fünfter Beitrag zur Pilzflora des Oberelsaß.

Roger’s mushrooms, at [Server not responding in Nov. 2018 and Jan. 2019. Apparently now exists as a phone app.]

Russian Red Book Plants; Красная Книга России, at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Safonov 1999 [as Сафонов, М.А.]. Трутовые грибы (Polyporaceae s.lato) лесов Оренбургской области [Polyporous fungi (Polyporaceae s. lato) from forests of Orenburg oblast]. Микология и Фитопатология [Mycology & Phytopathology] 33(2): 75–80. [Cited by Cybertruffle 2016; paper is presently unavailable to us.] 

Safonov 2014. European Researcher, 83(9-2): 1671–1676. Wood-destroying Basidiomycetes found on the elder woods in the South Urals (Orenburg Oblast, Russia).

Sikora & Neubauer 2015. Chrońmy Przyrodę Ojczystą, 71(5): 368–379. Nowe stanowiska i występowanie soplówki jeżowatej. Hericium erinaceus w Polsce.

Siller et alia 2005. Studia Botanica Hungarica, 36: 131–163. Hungarian Distribution of the Legally Protected Macrofungi Species.

Sokół et alia 2016. Acta Mycology, 50(2): article 1069. 18-pages. Biology, cultivation and medicinal functions of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum.

Stalpers 1992. Persoonia, 14(4): 537–541. Albatrellus and the Hericiaceae.

Stalpers 1996. Studies in Mycology, 40. The Aphyllophoraceous fungi. — II. Keys to the species of the Hericiales.

Stasińska 1999. Acta Mycologica, 34(1): 125–168. Macromycetes in forest communities of the Insko Landscape Park (NW Poland).

Sterbeeck 1675. Theatrum Fungorum oft Tooneel der Campernoelien, pages 254-255. [as = Cornu cervi calcinatum.]

Stevenson 1886. British Fungi, vol. 2. 239–240: Hericium coralloides; 240: Hericium erinaceum;  240: Hericium caput-medusae.

Sultana & Qreshi 2007. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39 (7): 2629–2649. Check List of Basidiomycetes (Aphyllo. and Phragmo.) of Kaghan Valley-11.

Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006. A Field Guide to Insects and Diseases of California Oaks, (USDA PSW GTR-197), pp. 99–101. Hedgehog mushroom, Hericium erinaceus f. erinaceus.

Tanchaud 2011. Hericium cirrhatum, at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Tanchaud 2015. Hericium clathroides, at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Tanchaud 2018. Hericium cirrhatum, at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Teng 1996. Fungi of China. [Cited by Cybertruffle 2016; book is presently unavailable to us.]

Thind & Khara 1975. Indian Phytopathology, 28: 57–65. The Hydnaceae of the North Western Himalayas–II. [Cited by Karun & Sridhar 2016; paper was unavailable.]

Thongbai et alia 2015. Mycological Progress, 14:91 (23 pages) Review: Hericium erinaceus, an amazing medicinal mushroom.

Tortič 1998. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 33: 139—146. An attempt to a list of indicator fungi (Aphyllophorales) for old forests of beech and fir in former Yugoslavia.

Trattinnick 1805. Fungi Austriaci, 191–196. XXV. Hydnum erinaceus Bull.

Trout 2004–2015. “Local observation” was for environs of Boonville, Philo & Yorkville, in Anderson Valley, Mendocino County, California.

Turland et alie (eds.) 2018: International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017. Regnum Vegetabile 159. 

Urban 2015. Czech Mycology, 67(1): 95–118. Abstracts of the International Symposium Fungi of Central European Old-Growth Forests, page 117. Substrate specificity does matter — macrofungal succession on coarse woody debris in an old-growth oak forest.

Van Hook 1922. Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science, 1921: 143–148. Indiana Fungi — VI.

pastedGraphic.pngVarstvo gozdov / Boletus informaticus, at [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Wald et alia 2004. Mycological Research, 108(12): 1447–1457. Interspecific interactions between the rare tooth fungi, Creolophus cirrhatus, Hericium erinaceus and H. coralloides, and other wood decay species in agar and wood.

Yurchenko 2002. Mycena, 2(1): 31–68. Non-poroid aphyllophoraceous fungi proposed to the third edition of the Red Data Book of Belarus. [Hericium coralloides: pages 47—50.]

Zutshi & Gupta 2013. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 51: 361–363. Occurrence and characterization of Hericium coralloides: a rare wild edible mushroom from Doda region of J & K, India. [Cited by Karun & Sridhar 2016; paper was unavailable. Could only access its abstract.]


First thanks should go to every author and collector who I have cited above as they did the actual work upon which this assemblage was based. 

I want to also thank a host of helpful information services for helping me obtain reference materials. Actual databases are listed in the references above. However, a growing number of organizations exist with the intentions of digitizing everything possible and making knowledge more readily available. In alphabetical order:, Biblioteca digital del Real Jardín Botanico CSIC (Madrid), Biodiversity Heritage Project, MOBOT’s Botanicus, the Canadian Forest Service, Citationsy, Galica at the Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Google, Hathitrust, and Alexandra Elbakyan’s Sci-Hub.