The first harvest of a few lion’s manes occurred this week. Unsurprisingly they all sold at yesterday’s market. More are on the way for this Saturday’s Farmers Market and for next week.
Shiitakes have begun fruiting. The shiitake logs began recently and the spawn bags are going now.
We decided to take advantage of the hot weather for pressure washing the entire facility. We will be back at the Farmer’s Markets in early September.
We experienced camera failure today but this proved to be another week with more than 23 pounds of lion’s manes harvested.
Summer always takes effort to keep these cool weather mushrooms happy.
As soon as we get through our current round of bags, we will perform our annual summer cleaning cycle. That will occur in less than two weeks.
We plan to be offline as briefly as possible as the demand for these is presently running high.
There were a lot of happy people in Ukiah on Saturday.
See you in Ft. Bragg today.
We had a harvest of more than 9 lbs on the 6th.
Another harvest of 7.6 lbs occurred last night.
And another harvest will occur late today. (It was more than 6 lbs.)
This week saw a total harvest of 21 pounds of lion’s manes and a much smaller amount of shiitakes. Our mushrooms have been selling out the past couple of weeks so we will keep expanding our production to fulfill the growing demand.
We hope to see you at the Ft. Bragg, Mendocino or Ukiah certified Farmers Market.
Lion’s mane harvests are still on the light side (4 kg were harvested from the two trays shown fruiting in the previous video) but despite that they made some people in Mendocino happy last week (and a couple in Ukiah). A light offering of our mushrooms will be at Ft. Bragg today and more at Ukiah on Saturday; with lots more to come and another round of bags scheduled to be opened and added today. We will also be at Mendocino next week.
Another week of mushroom growth; shown on Tuesday afternoon..
AND, while the next shiitakes to be harvested from our spawn bag production are still some weeks in the future, the first few shiitakes are beginning on some of the ricks that were plugged last summer.
We are looking forward to the 2018 Farmer’s Market season!
This year we will be sharing mushrooms with The Forest People so we will be offering each other’s mushrooms; our lion’s manes and their oysters respectively. One or both of us hopes to see you in Mendocino, Ft. Bragg or Ukiah at the MCFarm certified farmers market.
A look at the Hericium fruiting chamber today is below. It appears that we will be back at a steady pace again within the next two weeks.
The garden is gearing up for Spring also.
We will soon have gobo (burdock root) and will be bringing some incredible ha gobo leaves to the next farmer’s market. This has become one of our favorite greens. It has a flavor similar to collards but with a luscious velvety mouth feel.
After resolving a technical problem with our ISP, all of our web content and email occurring since the 26th of last July has vanished.
Some views of the Hericium fruiting chamber are below; taking us up to the point of a fungus gnat invasion in January. We shut down following that discovery (look for discolored or prematurely toothy fruiting bodies to see its beginning), decontaminated the entire facility, built another layer of entryway protection and are now in the process of refilling the chamber with bags again for 2018 Farmers Market.
New videos will be added soon showing our progress but for now here are some looks at our experience occurring between late July 2017 and January 2018.
Two weeks of growth: part 2 — 28 July 2017 IMG 2607
Two weeks of growth: part 3 — 28 July 2017 IMG 2620
Two weeks of growth: part 4 — 1 aug 2017 IMG 2622
Two weeks of growth: part 5 — 1 aug 2017 IMG 2642
Two weeks of growth: part 6 — 5 aug 2017 IMG 2661
Two weeks of growth: part 7 — 9 aug 2017 IMG 2676
Hericium erinaceus 2018 January 04 IMG 5042
Hericium erinaceus 13 Jan 2018 IMG 5335
Hericium erinaceus 19 Jan 2018 IMG 5793
Hericium erinaceus 25 january 2018 IMG 5959
The Hericium fruiting chamber today.
This year’s spring rains added some challenges but we are now in the process of getting our production back up to speed.
We look forward to seeing you at the Boonville Farmer’s Market.
2017 promises to be an exiting year. We hope to see you at the Boonville Farmer’s Market.
As of February 25, 2017, we can now accept payments using credit cards or PayPal at the Farmer’s Market.
The view inside the Hericium fruiting chamber as of yesterday.
We hope to see you at the Boonville Farmer’s Market!
Today was a great day for lion’s manes.
This was the view just before harvest:
I noticed some minor water drippage problems that I need to fine tune as I lost a couple of mushrooms to it. Check out the upper side of this beautiful lion’s mane. Notice that grey spot? This otherwise nice looking mushroom is unsaleable because of that.
Off the subject of lion’s manes for a moment, I was surprised to see this Pleurotus fruiting on a familiar Hericium tree.
This gorgeous lion’s mane (Hericium erinaceus) was not as much of a surprise since this is the sixth year for this spot but it did surprise me by being so early. Around now has been more typical to find it at a much earlier stage of growth. Hericium coralloides has also been abundant on this same fallen trunk during those same years but it won’t get going until after it gets cold.
We can’t sell wild Hericium erinaceus in California but we sure do enjoy eating them.
We made a small harvest for market in between these two sets of images but thought it would be of interest to see some paired images from 30 September and 1 October as they show how fast lion’s manes can grow.
Lion’s manes will be available again soon; beginning with next week’s Boonville Farmer’s Market.
We will also have a few shiitakes, assorted tomatoes and some amazing potatoes.
We look forward to seeing you there.
We are clearly fast approaching the point of establishing the maximum production capacity of this fruiting chamber. The blobby mushrooms are all young Hericium americanum.
The CO2 level is still running a little high (650 ppm) but I’m hoping to have that dialed in within the next couple of days by adding a larger vent fan (replacing one of the existing ones – a 4″- with a 7-inch inline exhast fan).
RIght now it is where we want (between 450-500 ppm) only until the chamber gets more than half way full. Preventing the massive spore load from clogging the insect screening has also become a recurrent maintenance task as the accumulation of spores plays a major role in interferring with good air exchange. The air inside of the fruiting chamber is completely replaced with fresh air six times every hour.
It is actually the 4th of December and I had hoped to post this pair of youtube videos a few days ago so am editing an older post.
The first view was following a harvest and the beginning of another round of open bags. Some from the previous round are still going and on their second flush.
This was the view on 24 November.
There is another video at youtube that was taken in between those. The camera had become lost and does not reliably date media so the day it was taken is unclear but was likely on the 21st or 22nd of November.
Hericium erinaceus 24 October 2015
Cultivated: 167 grams (1/3rd lb.)
Hericium erinaceus 1 November 2015
Wild: 730 grams
We can’t sell wild mushrooms but we certainly do eat them! Part of this one was delicious last night cooked with chicken and vegetables.
And there was another Lion’s mane that was found today (2 November). Harvesting mushrooms such as this one can be potentially dangerous.
I did not manage to bring this one down as a single, 791 gram, piece.
There was another one above it that was easily 30+ feet higher on the tree (so it was safe from me).
A Chinese adage is good to keep in mind considering Hericium erinaceus eats trees:
“Fools and smoke like to climb high”
This is that same tree when I checked it a month ago (5 October)
Things are moving along well as we begin refilling the Hericium fruiting chamber.
These images are from 22 October 2015.
We just completed a nice harvest, removed those trays and replaced them with the spawn bags that are ready. We hope to see you at this weekend’s Farmer’s Market.
It will be the second to last certified Farmer’s Market of the season.
What goes into our mushrooms is really simple.
We start with tan-oak (Lithocarpus densifolia) sawdust from the local business Frank’s Firewood.
Frank is in the business of producing and selling firewood but that process creates a lot of great sawdust which is perfect for our needs. Frank refuses to take in any trees that have been killed or treated with herbicides.
To that is added organic wheat bran and the highest-quality pure gypsum that is considered to be ‘organic’. We are not presently recognized as organic producers but do our best to include only pure ingredients.
When we make spawn, we use organic rye grain. If we order commercial grain spawn it comes from a certified organic producer.
The only other thing that we incorporate in the recipe for our mushroom growing media is the high-quality water from our protected well.
We are taking it one step farther and as of late February 2016 will be using only organic nonGMO dextrose which is derived from grapes and imported from Italy thanks to Naturalia Ingredients and Ciranda. There was so much difficulty locating organic dextrose that we have decided to offer small quantities at reasonable prices to other mushroom producers who are wanting to use entirely organic ingredients.
Lion’s mane are delicate and fragile mushrooms that can bruise easily (compare ours to those from other producers). To minimize handling, and any bruising or discoloration, we carefully pick each individual Lion’s manes using a bakery tissue and gently nestle them together loosely. Most mushrooms, such as shiitakes, don’t require that. Whenever possible all of our mushrooms are harvested directly into their resale packaging. Boxes such as the one below promptly go into refrigeration to ensure you of the longest possible shelflife.
The most important thing we put into the production of all of our mushrooms is a lot of love.
Simple is good.
Our summer maintenance is complete and everything is just beginning to gear back up towards full production.
The conditions inside are as close to being perfect as I could want for keeping the lion’s manes happy.
Carbon dioxide level & temperature meter
The Lion’s manes are doing great. They even permitted a small harvest for last weekend’s Farmer’s Market.
The outside temperatures cooling off at nighttime lately triggered a log to fruit. You can see why we’ve grown fonder of bag production as it leaves the mushrooms really clean by comparison.
We hope to see you at Saturday’s Farmer’s Market in Boonville.
Held Saturdays from 10AM-1230PM in the Boonville Hotel parking lot until the end of this month.
The hot temperatures lately seemed to suggest a perfect opportunity to clean the fruiting chamber and get ready for some nice Hericium weather again (outdoors and indoors).
That process all went great but for reasons we do not understand recovery is proceeding a little slowly. We had hoped to have the lion’s manes back in action for this week’s Farmer’s Market but it appears they won’t catch up with the interest until midweek next week.
Shiitakes are still ongoing and increasing in numbers.
Tomatoes in recent weeks:
Cooking with the Lion’s Mane mushrooms (Hericium species)
There are many ways to cook the Lion’s mane (Hericium) mushrooms.
My favorite two:
1) Cut into 1/2 inch slices or if solid and very large the slices also get re-sliced into 1/2” wide strips. Some people prefer to tear them into pieces. Try both approaches to discover which you like best.
Wild harvested mushrooms, including Lion’s mane, will usually go into a dry fry pan at the beginning to ‘sweat out’ a lot of liquid (and flavor). which will then take a few minutes to reduce and be re-sorbed back into the mushroom (usually 6-8).
If the hericiums were cultivated, or if they were wild harvested during periods of non-rainy weather, they usually need a few tablespoons of water to be added at first (and occasionally more later) to prevent scorching.
If oil is used it should be only enough to prevent sticking. Too much results in frying the mushroom. Ideally just small bits of water should be used at this point.
The mushrooms should be started on a medium high heat and cooked for around 1-2 minutes with stirring — just to get them completely hot quickly, then the heat should then be reduced to medium low or low and they should be cooked covered for another 15 minutes with occasional stirring. Halfway into the cooking add a small amount of butter or a 2:1 mixture of olive oil and butter.
Wine or other optional liquid seasonings should be added only towards the end of the cooking process or they can be absorbed to the point of obscuring the delicate flavor of the lion’s mane.
2) Start out the same as above but add the butter and/or oil much sooner, as soon as liquids have been resorbed by the mushrooms. (be sure that all excess liquid has been resorbed before adding butter/oil) and cook over moderate heat until the edges and teeth begin to get golden-brown and crunchy. This will require a bit more oil than the first method plus very close monitoring towards the end, to avoid scorching.
All Hericium mushroom species freeze well once cooked. They can be prepared when available, packed into half-pint jars, and frozen for use at another time.
Easy Chicken with Lion’s Mane, peppers & potatoes
Thinly slice or dice a medium onion and a largish clove of garlic.
Lightly cook in a frying pan in oil. I greatly like a blend of Avocado oil and roasted garlic olive oil.
Add 1/2 dozen baby bell peppers cut into quarters.
When the color of the onions and the peppers begins to change, turn over and add 1-3/4# organic boneless chicken thighs, approximately 2 cups of (four medium sized)
potatoes or the equivalent in small potatoes, roughly same amount of Hericium as potatoes (cut into 1/2 inch sections; or if large the slices should be resliced into 1/2″ wide strips) approximately two cups once chopped. I like to add one or two slices of butter at that point as well.
Cover and cook on medium-low to medium heat until the chicken is done. Usually 15-20 minutes.
Salt and/or pepper to taste, if needed.
Hot peppers may be added with the bell peppers if heat is desired and the chicken may be omitted if a vegetarian dish is desired.
If the chicken is omitted more monitoring is required and a few tablespoons of water may be needed in order to prevent scorching of the vegetables.
Cooking with Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes)
Cook them in good oil such as butter, olive-oil:butter, avocado oil, etcetera until the slices are limp.
Shiitakes are versatile. They can be stir fried, baked plain or stuffed, marinated and grilled, added whole to the vegetables that get cooked along with a roast or in an earthen oven, added to soups, stews or meat dishes, or they can be cooked alone and enjoyed as dish. Precooked shiitakes can also then be combined with other foods such as omelettes, vegetables, soups and salads. It may be convenient to cook enough mushrooms for adding to 2 or 4 meals. Cooked shiitakes freeze acceptably.
Butter, garlic & a little salt may compliment shiitakes own distinctive flavor.
Stems of shiitakes are most often fibrous and very tough. They should be removed before cooking.
Thicker stems can be very thinly sliced and fried until golden brown in butter or butter and oil for a crispy-to-chewy treat. Thinner, tougher stems can be dried and ground into a powder for later use as a thickening agent in soups, stews, stock reductions and many types of sauces. Or stems *can* be discarded.
Shiitake ‘bacon’ with sea-palm fronds
Slice shiitakes thin but not too thinly. A couple to several (2-4) mm is fine. Try to slice them evenly.
Place the slices into a bowl and add a minimum amount of your favorite cooking oil then gently stir extremely well. A variant of this is to spread the slices out on a cooking sheet and lightly mist with a light spray of oil before tossing to coat all surfaces. It is important to not use too much oil.
The goal is to get a bare minimum but thorough coating of oil on all of the mushrooms. A special touch can be created by adding a drop of liquid smoke to the oil and shaking very well before oiling the mushrooms.
Once this is done lightly season with sea salt and again mix thoroughly. Other seasonings can also be added but keeping it simple has great results.
Spread the shiitakes out into a single layer on a foil or parchment paper lined baking sheet. Sprinkle the top with coarse sea salt.
Bake in a preheated 350°F oven, checking frequently, especially towards the end.
You want them to cook completely dry, turning brown with some golden parts. This takes a few minutes (15 or more minutes is common; the hotter the oven the faster it goes but monitor them carefully as rotating the pan may be required in some ovens. The last few minutes of this goes very fast so it requires a close eye to prevent burning.
Using care, transfer the baked mushrooms from the hot sheet into a bowl.
Let it cool and you now have a bowl of shiitake bacon.
Break some crunchy dried sea palm fronds into smaller pieces & toss with your shiitake bacon. Enjoy.
If you are an optimist this can be packed into a jar and placed into a refrigerator for storage. If you are a realist you will probably leave it available on the counter knowing it will be consumed very quickly.
Caution: this food item may be found to be compulsively addictive.
It is important to cook shiitakes thoroughly.
Approximately one in 50 or more people appear to have a sensitivity to uncooked or undercooked shiitakes. Most shiitakes consumed in the world are dried and then rehydrated; drying is not the same as cooking and a thorough cooking is still needed.
In those rare individuals who are allergic, consuming undercooked or raw shiitakes may result in a skin rash resembling poison oak but accompanied by characteristic scratch-like lines (“flagellate”). If there is an allergic reaction, the rash begins 24-72 hr following ingestion and can last for up to 14 days. It resolves spontaneously without any treatment but a doctor can shorten its duration.
Most people are not allergic. Thoroughly cooked shiitakes appear to be OK for everyone.
Our shiitakes are finally getting going again!
This first small round of bags is showing some signs of heat stress but they are just the beginning. The new fruiting chamber should be able to keep the shiitakes cool enough to stay happy this summer. It just came online within the past few days.
A peak inside of the Hericium fruiting chamber.
Here is a look at a few of the mushrooms that will be going to the Farmer’s Market tomorrow (23 May 2015).
This week the Boonville Farmer’s Market is being held at its regular time from 10-1230 in the Boonville Hotel parking lot followed by a special event at the Madrones in Philo from 1-4.
Three Hericium species will be available this week and the shiitakes are getting closer to fruiting with every passing day.
Hericium americanum (Bear’s head) is winding down. This cycle has been a market-test to see how well people like it so the availability is still limited. If it does well at this weekend’s market I’ll start up another run of it and it will return to production in a few weeks.
Hericium coralloides (Coral tooth) will be there in very limited numbers for the lucky few people who can grab them first.
And the Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane) will be there of course.
This was the view inside of the fruiting chamber today:
These bags are heading towards being ready for next week:
And I thought it might be time for another tour inside of the fruiting chamber:
Just a look at a few of the mushrooms that are going to the Farmer’s Market tomorrow (16 May 2015).
Some Hericium americanum (compare these to a few days ago).
For a sense of scale, those bags are 9 inches wide.
This smallish one was really anxious to get some spores out.
The tray on top is regular Hericium erinaceus lion’s manes that will start putting on fruit in the next few days. The row below that are the Hericium americanum that are being harvested this week.
These bags are merrily incubating and will be ready to open for fruiting in another week.
I’m not just saying that as a figure of speech. I really love the experience of eating, smelling, touching, seeing or just being near any of the Hericiums.
The new fruiting chamber is working very well. Fine tuning the misting is still ongoing but the lion’s mane mushrooms all really love it in there.
These images show a few of what was fruiting today. For some reason I failed to take photographs of the last two lots which were harvested and delivered within just the last few days.
Bags that were opened but which are showing no fruit in these images were either just harvested on Thursday and Friday or else just entered the rotation and will begin fruiting within this week.
Lots of learning is still ongoing. For example I’ve found that if I make cuts in the bags that are too large, a little bit of the sawdust and/or grain media ends up on the back of the mushroom. Not a big deal but it is also avoidable. If I make them too small, the fruit can spontaneously fall off as it gets big. If I do it just right, they almost want to drop into my hand with a very clean separation.
Alternating cycles of intense heavy fog with periods that drop to 85% relative humidity has also been appreciated by them. I’ve also increased the total chamber venting time by 8 minutes per hour due to the CO2 level increasing as the chamber started becoming more filled with bags. Exhaust fans vent the air six times every hour.
I’ve read that lion’s manes don’t like light during colonization. I’ve even grown them that way. They do fine starting in total darkness (and also do fine with ZERO supplementation) but grow much slower and take longer before their first fruiting. They seem to appreciate loght and they grow a lot better with it. As soon as they are on sawdust, the incubating bags here currently experience a 10/14 day/night cycle. I’m still learning so this ratio may change. Light also noticeably contributes positively to mycelial growth. Light does add some problems for the same reason it has value though due to the risk of the LED cables behind the trays stimulating growth through the filter patch leading to fruit forming and becoming trapped behind the bags. The precautions against light also have value for decreasing the incidence of microfruiting of Hericium on agar and grain.
The Hericium americanum are starting to really develop. I’m not sure if I am going to wait until the teeth develop or not. One that I picked and added to dinner as a test was great.
This Hericium coralloides was delicious.
Lots of Hericium erinaceus have been fruiting
And “Shanti”, a really nice multilobed Hericium erinaceus variant, is also growing very well.
Comments about our cultivated Lion’s mane mushrooms
Why do we only sell cultivated Hericium?
Why not add some *wild* harvested Hericium?
It is certainly possible to harvest the Hericium species and many other mushrooms from the wild. Both of us have been avid foragers of wild mushrooms for some years now, to be part of our own diet, and we consume a rather substantial quantity of wild Hericium species every year, but we sell only cultivated mushrooms.
There are many benefits of mushroom cultivation.
A few of those include:
1) a predictable supply that is not based on lucky weather, seasonally limited fruiting periods, and the timing of visitation all coinciding productively,
2) the ability to harvest only the highest-quality mushrooms at their peak,
3) knowing that they are free from molds,
4) the ability to prevent excessive moisture content (a frequent challenge with wild lion’s mane especially when large),
5) the production of fungal bodies that are clean (rather than containing forest debris, and many tiny beetles , fungus gnats, their larvae, and mites, often inside of the mushroom’s tissues, as is quite common with wild-collected lion’s mane),
6) much greater personal safety during harvesting; compared to climbing or otherwise recovering fruiting bodies from a rotting tree (& it completely avoids the uniquely unpleasant but harmless experience of “catching” a large falling lion’s mane with one’s forehead),
7) there is the added benefit of control over the ingredients of the media; ensuring the least possible risk of any type of heavy metal accumulation.
That last point is an important concern about which many people appear to be aware.
We commonly associate heavy metals with industrial pollution and can forget that potentially toxic elements such as lead, mercury, cadmium, nickel and arsenic are not uncommonly natural and normal minor components of rocks and soil. Many of the edible mushroom species appear to have the ability to accumulate one or more of these metals IF they are present and bioavailable in their surroundings.
Cultivation permits the grower to know, within reason, exactly what is contained in their growing media and minimize that risk. In the EU, maximum permissible levels of heavy metals have been established for both wild and cultivated mushroom species that are sold to the public. The USA lacks regulation in this particular area.
How mushroom cultivation works (a more detailed pictorial will be added here in the future):
All media (whether liquid culture, agar, grain or sawdust) is first cooked in a pressure cooker in an attempt to kill any potential contaminant prior to the inoculation. The inoculation work is performed in front of a hepafiltered flowhood that temporarily creates a clean, almost sterile, working space as the resulting filtered air-flow is free from microbes and mold spores.
Cultures of the edible mushroom species are far more often produced by cloning than from spores. The reason is simple; spores produce a broad range of individuals with different performances and yields. A commercial mushroom producer needs to select for only the most vigorous and productive of those in order to be a successful farmer. Once a good performing clone has been identified and proven by growing it out through the entire fruiting process, future propagation focuses on inoculations using that same clone line. Most, perhaps all, professional cultivators keep an eye out for unusually nice fruiting bodies that might provide a lineage of good production for them.
Clones are created by taking a small piece of tissue from inside of a living mushroom and transferring it to a sterile culture medium of some sort.
Commercial sources exist for Hericium erinaceus, and up to three other species (H. americanum, H. clathroides & H. coralloides). They are variously available as mycelial cultures on agar, in petri dishes or slants, and in liquid culture, as well as grain spawn, sawdust spawn intended for plugging logs, hardwood dowels colonized with mycelium, and sometimes even precolonized on sawdust cakes ready-to-fruit.
The growth of cultures that are intended for production are often begun on either agar in a petri dish or in water in a jar that has a filter disk for a lid — either one containing a low concentration of a source of sugar such as dextrose or light malt extract.
This can then be repeated once the colonization has taken place and small portions of the mycelium can be used to inoculate additional plates of agar or liquid culture or at some point either can be transferred onto grain.
Each jar of colonized grain can potentially then be used to inoculate more jars of grain. The endpoint for those jars of grain is that they are eventually used to inoculate a number of bags of sawdust that have been supplemented with wheat bran and a mixture of gypsum and oyster shell.
After the bags are inoculated, they get to luxuriate in the cool, moist, protected environment of their fruiting chamber (an insulated shipping container with filtered air and good pre-conditioned ventilation). As soon as the bags are colonized, small cuts are made in a couple of spots to permit the fruit to form on the outside of the bag.
The fruit tends to naturally occur most often on a vertical surface, or even under a negative incline, rather than on top of a horizontal surface. This particular run pictured below is evaluating the yield from a top fruiting arrangement.
A short tour of the Hericium fruiting chamber:
Our favorite time to harvest is when the teeth have just started. The texture is nice, the taste is mildly almost sweet and the shelf-life is longer.
It is not yet clear exactly what tomatoes we will be offering this year but an update will be added as soon as possible.
These are a few images of last year’s tomatoes (summer 2014).
AKA “Vietnamese Cilantro”
Polygonum odoratum Lour. — renamed Persicaria odorata (Lour.) Soják
Fresh leaves and young stems are used fresh.
Many common names can be encountered online:
Cambodian: Chi krasang tomhom, Chi pong tea koun
Chinese [Cantonese]: 越南香菜 (Yuht nàahm hēung choi), also 喇沙葉 (Lāak sāa yihp) [Singapore Cantonese])
Chinese [Mandarin]: 越南香菜 (Yuè nán xiāng cài), 喇沙葉 (Lā shā yè)
Czech: Kokořík vonný
Danish: Vietnamesisk Koriander
English: Asian mint, Cambodian mint, Hot mint, Kesum, Laksa plant, Perennial coriander, Smartweed, Vietnamese coriander, Vietnamese cilantro, Vietnamese mint (this last common name is shared with Kinh Gioi: Elsholtzia ciliata)
French: Coriandre du Vietnam, Persicaire du Vietnam, Renouée odorante
German: Vietnamesischer Koriander, Wohlriechender Knöterich
Hmong: Luam laws
Hungarian: Vietnámi menta
Khmer: Chi krassang tomhom, Xang-hum
Lao: Phak phew/Phak phaew/Phak pheo
Malay: Dawn laksa/Daun laksa, Dawn kesum/Daun kesom [Singapore]
Manipuri [Meitei-Lon]: Phakpai/Phak-Pai
Russian: Купена лекарственная (Kupiena lekarstvennaya), Горец ароматный (Gomets aromatny)
Singapore: Daun kesom, Laksa herb, Laksa leaves, Laksa plant, Laksa yip
Spanish: Culatro de Vietnam, Culatro
Thai: จันทร์โฉม (Chan chom), หอมจันทน์ (Hom chan) [Ayutthaya], ผักไผ่ (Phak phai/Pak pai/Phak pai), พริกม้า (Phrik ma) [Northeastern Thailand], Pa pao
Vietnamese: Rau Râm
Burdock root comes from the Greater Burdock or Arctium lappa.
Once grown as a common and popular vegetable in the European Middle Ages, burdock has inexplicably fallen out of popularity in modern times. It is still quite well-loved and eaten throughout Asia.
Brazil: bardana, garduna.
China: ngau pong, niúbàng (牛蒡 ), niu bang zi.
Croatia: čaj od čička, lopuh, lapušina, veliki čičak, veliki ripanj
Czech republic: lopuch větsí.
English-speaking countries: burdock, edible burdock, greater burdock, great burdock, great bur, common burdock, aireve, airup, bachelor’s-buttons (more often applied to Centaurea cyanus), bardane root, bazzies (?), beggar’s button, billy-buttons, bourholm (obsolete), burr seed, clive, clit-bur, great clotbur, clot, clod, cockle-bar, cockle-bur (more often applied to the Xanthium species), cockle-button, cockly-bur, crocklety-bur, cockly, cuckoldy-bur, cuckold-dock, cucklemoors, cuckold-dock, cuckoo-button, eddick (?), edible goberon, flapper-bags, Fox’s clote, happy major, harebur, hardock (also appearing incorrectly as harlock), herrif, hoar-dock, hurr-burr, lappa root, lappa, love leaves, personata, philanthropium. stick-button, sticky buttons, thistle (more often applied to other plants), thorny bur, turkey-bur (name applied to other plants) .
Estonia: suur takjas.
France: glouteron (Codex), artichaut, bardane, bardane comestible, bardane commune, bardane géante, bardane majeure, bardane officinale, bouillon noir, catherinettes, chou d’âne, copeau, croquia, craquia, crakia, grachias, grande bardane, graquias, grateau, gratteau, gratteron, grippe, herbe aux pouilleux, herbe aux seigneurs, herbe aux teigneux, herbe du teigneux, oreille de géant, napolier, pignet, piquant, rapace, rhubarbe du diable, rhubarbe sauvage, rosesbardane, tabac du yâb, toques.
Germany: große klette, dollenkrautwurzel, kleberwurzel, klettendistelwurzel, klettenwurzel, kletten-wurzel, klissenwurzel, rossklettenwurzel.
Italy: bardana, lappa bardana, bardana maggiore.
Japan: gobō (牛蒡 or ゴボウ or ごぼ).
Latin: Bardanae Radix, Radix Arctii, Radix Lappae, Radix Personatae.
Portugal: bardana, orelha-de-gigante
Russia: lapuch, lopuszniek, repiejnik.
Korea: u-eong (우엉)
Serbia: čičak, korijen čička (dried)
The slender roots can reach 4 feet, and resemble a carrot in shape. Harvesting is typically done when they reach around two feet long. The roots are brown with white flesh that rapidly darkens with exposure to air. That oxidation can also stain fingers so latex gloves might be desired.
Preparation is commonly done using a bowl of acidified water to place pieces into as they get cut. This will help keep them light colored.
Burdock roots can be eaten raw or cooked. They have a mild, earthy flavor that is highly prized for rich soups and stews. The root of burdock is very commonly julienned or sliced thinly.
The immature peeled flower stalks and the young leaves can also be eaten fresh or cooked. Cultivars have been developed specifically for their leaves. The roots are also enjoyed pickled.
Burdock seeds were the inspiration for the invention of Velcro by George de Mestral in the 1940s.
All plant parts of the golden-berry other than ripe fruit, including the unripe fruit, are considered to be poisonous. The fruit are harvested after their husks have fallen to the ground, but care is needed to be sure that they have turned golden-yellow and are fully ripe. Mature fruit will keep for several months.
The ripe fruit can be eaten fresh out of hand or used in salads and cooked dishes. They are also popular dipped in chocolate or candied or dried into golden “raisins”.
English: pichuberries (USA), Cape gooseberry (South Africa, UK), African ground cherry, Aztec berry, Barbados gooseberry, bladderberry, giant ground cherry, Goldenberry, golden berry, golden Cape gooseberry, golden husk goldenberry, gooseberry tomato, ground cherry, ground-cherry, groundcherry, Husk Cherry, Inca berry, love apple, Peruvian cherry, Peruvian groundcherry, Peruvian Ground Cherry, Peruvian cherry, Peruvian tomato, Poha, Poha Berry, strawberry tomato, wild gooseberry, winter cherry. (Not related to any true cherry or true gooseberry.)
French: amour en cage
Spanish: uchuva (Colombia)
This plant is originally from Brazil but has become naturalized in Peru and Chile.
It has been cultivated in England and South Africa for more than 200 years. It has become distributed almost worldwide and is regarded to be an invasive pest in frost-free climates such as Hawaii.
It is cultivated in many of the African nations, also in Turkey, India, Australia, New Zealand, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Chile, and Peru.
It was reported to be potentially harmful to the heart health of men if they consume massive quantities of the fruit (>5 kg of fruit per kg of body weight). This does not appear to pose a significant risk factor as people always ingest far less.
Plugging logs is nowhere near as efficient as growing mushrooms using spawn bags but it is within more people’s reach. Logs also have an advantage of lasting longer so make a nice complement to our bag production.
Holes are best drilled using a high-speed drill and a stop.
There are a couple of different tools for this.
Shiitake drill (10,000 rpm)
The Hitachi Koki DW12SA (S) is a specialty tool that was made by Hitachi for the shiitake industry.
It can sometimes be difficult to obtain outside of Japan but Japanese people can help obtain one by serving as a reshipper. A number of people do this as a commercial service. Acquiring it can cost about the same as the price of the drill once factoring in all of the postage. SOMETIMES companies exist which resell this item so it is worth checking if anyone is presently doing this.
High-speed modified drill
An angle grinder (10,000 rpm) can be obtained from any hardware store.
An angle adaptor and a drill bit with a stop can be obtained from Field and Forest that will turn it into a high-speed shiitake drill.
That same company also sells this as a complete set including the angle grinder.
This costs in the ball park of the price for the shiitake drill in Japan.
Tools & supplies:
bit with stop sized for media choice (the shiitake drill has a built-in stop; drill bits that include stops are convenient). 12mm for sawdust media. 10.5mm for plugs.
inoculation tool for sawdust or a hammer for plugs.
bowl or container to hold sawdust media or plugs while working
metal plant tags
[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. The description included molecular work.]
Abies densa (Sikkim fir) “attached to living host” Das et al. 2013 (Sikkim, India).
[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. Most authorities reject this name. I have not yet located any molecular work.]
Quercus pedunculata (a synonym for Q. robur) Nikolaeva 1961: 238. (USSR).
[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. The description included molecular work.]
Lithraea molleoides (aroeira-branca) “dead standing” Hallenberg et al. 2012 (Córdoba province, Colón Department, Argentina).
Lithraea sp. “fallen log” Hallenberg et al. 2012 (Córdoba province, Colón Department, Argentina)
Abrego et al. 2017. Fungal Ecology, 27: 168–174. Understanding the distribution of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech reserves from species-specific habitat models.
Afyon et al. 2004. Turkish Journal of Botany, 28: 351–360. Macrofungi of Sinop Province.
Afyon et al. 2009. Mycotaxon, 93: 319–322. A study of wood decaying macrofungi of the western Black Sea Region, Turkey.
Allen et al. 1996. Common Tree Diseases of British Columbia, 38–39. Heart rots: Yellow pitted rot.
Arnolds 2001. In Moore et al. Fungal Conservation. Issues and Solutions. pages 64–80. The future of fungi in Europe: threats, conservation and management. (Digital version was in 2008.)
ATCC product information, data gleaned from within individual entries at http://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Fungi_and_Yeast/Fungi_and_Yeast_Alphanumeric.aspx
Banker 1906. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club, 12 (2): 99–192. A contribution to a revision of the North American Hydnaceae.
Berry & Lombard 1978. Forest Service Research Paper NE-413, Basidiomycetes Associated with Decay of Living Oak Trees.
Binion et al. 2008. Macrofungi associated with oaks of eastern North America. [Cited by Glaeser & Smith 2013 but unavailable to us.]
Bisko et al. 2016. IBK Mushroom Culture Collection.
Brambilla & Sutton 1969. Host Index of Species Deposited in the Mycological Herbarium (WINF/M) of the Forest Research Laboratory, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Bresadola 1906. I Funghi Mangerecci e velenosi dell Europa Media, vol. 2, 112–113.
Burdsall et al. 1978. Mycotaxon, 7 (1): 1–9. Morphological and Mating System Studies of a New Taxon of Hericium (Aphyllophorales-Hericiaceae) from the Southern Appalachians.
CABI Index of Fungi, at http://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/online-information-resources/index-of-fungi/
Das et al. 2011. Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 32 (3): 285–293. A new species of Hericium from Sikkim Himalaya (India).
Das et al. 2013. IMA Fungus, 4 (2): 359–369. Two new species of hydnoid-fungi from India.
DAVFP Collections Database Pacific Forestry Centre’s Forest Pathology Herbarium, at http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/herbarium
Davidson et al. 1942. USDA Technical Bulletin 785, Fungi Causing Decay of Living Oaks in the Eastern United States and Their Cultural Identification.
Doğan & Öztürk 2006. Turkish Journal of Botany, 30: 193–207. Macrofungi and Their Distribution in Karaman Province, Turkey
Doğan et al. 2005. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 37 (2): 459–485. A Checklist of Aphyllophorales of Turkey.
ECCF (European Council for Conservation of Fungi) 2001. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. T-PVS 34: page 21. Datasheets of threatened mushrooms of Europe, candidates for listing in Appendix I of the Convention.
Ginns 1984. Mycotaxon, 20 (1): 39–43. Hericium coralloides N. Amer. auct. H. americanum, and the European H. alpestre and H. coralloides.
Ginns 1985. Canadian Journal of Botany, 63 (9): 1551–1563. Hericium in North America, cultural characteristics and mating behavior.
Glaeser & Smith 2010. Western Arborist, 32–46. Decay fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists.
Glaeser & Smith 2013. Western Arborist, 40–51. Decay fungi of riparian trees in the Southwestern U.S.
Global Catalogue of Microorganisms, at http://gcm.wfcc.info
Global Fungal Red List Initiative, at http://iucn.ekoo.se/iucn/species_view/120231
Hallenberg 1983. Mycotaxon, 18 (1): 181–189. Hericium coralloides and H. alpestre (Basidiomycetes) in Europe.
Hallenberg et al. 2012. Mycological Progress, 12 (2): 413–420. Species complexes in Hericium (Russulales, Agaricomycota) and a new species —Hericium rajchenbergii — from southern South America.
Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003. Hericium Tooth Fungi.
Harrison 1973. Michigan Botanist, 12: 177–194. The Genus Hericium in North America.
Henderson 1981. Trial field key to TOOTHED FUNGI in the Pacific Northwest. (Pacific Northwest Key Council), at http://www.svims.ca
Hyams 1900. North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts Bulletin, 177: 27–77. Edible mushrooms of North Carolina.
Index Species Fungorum, at http://www.speciesfungorum.org
Kaya 2009. Turkish Journal of Botany, 33: 429–437. Macrofungi of Huzurlu high plateau (Gaziantep-Turkey).
Keizer 2008. De soorten van het leefgebiedenbeleid, 55–57, (Chapter 14) Echte Pruikzwam Hericium Erinaceum (Bull. ; Fr.) Pers.
Kunca & Čiliak 2015. Czech Mycology, 67(1): 95–118. Abstracts of the International Symposium Fungi of Central European Old-Growth Forests, page 107. Ecology, incidence and indication value of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia and the Western Carpathians.
Kunca & Čiliak 2017. Data in Brief, 12: 156–160. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia.
Kunca & Čiliak 2017. Fungal Ecology, 27 (B): 189–192. Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia.
Kuo website, at http://www.mushroomexpert.com
Lacheva 2014. International Journal of Microbiology and Mycology, 2 (3): 37–48. A case study on wood decaying macrofungi in the Southwestern slopes of Vasilyovska Mountain, Forebalkan, Bulgaria.
Letellier 1826. Histoire Et Description Des Champignons. 112–113: caput medusae; 113–114: erinaceus; 114–115 coralloides.
Lisiewska 2006. Acta Mycologica, 41 (2): 241–252. Endangered macrofungi of selected nature reserves in Wielkopolska.
Maas Geesteranus 1959. Persoonia, 1 (1): 115–147. The stipitate Hydnums of the Netherlands — IV.
Merino Alcántara 2011. Micobotánica-Jaén, 4-pages. Hericium alpestre.
Michel 2007. Contribution à la connaissance de la fonge lignicole du site de Saint-Daumas, page 24.
Miller 1935. Mycologia, 27 (4): 357–373. The Hydnaceae of Iowa. IV. The Genera Steccherinum, Auriscalpium, Hericium, Dentinum and Calodon.
Morel Mushroom Hunting Club (i.e. Chris Matherly), at www.morelmushroomhunting.com/herricium_coralloides_var_rosea.htm
Mori et al. 2008. Phytotherapy Research, 23 (3): 367–372. Improving Effects of the Mushroom Yamabushitake, Hericium erinaceus, on Mild Cognitive Impairment; A Double blind Placebo controlled Clinical Trial,
and also in
Mori et al. 2008. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 31 (9): 1727–1732. Nerve Growth Factor Inducing Activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 Human Astrocytoma Cells.
Mycoweb, at http://www.mykoweb.com
Nanagulian & Senn-Irlet 2002. Some Dates [sic] About Distribution and Conservation of Threatened Mushrooms in Armenia.
Nikolajeva 1961. Flora plantarum cryptogamarum URSS. Fungi. Familia Hydnaceae, 6 (2): 1–432.
Oudemans 1919–1924. Enumeratio systematica Fungorum.
Ostry et al. 2011. Field Guide to Common Macrofungi in Eastern Forests and Their Ecosystem Functions (GTR 79).
Persoon 1794. Neues Magazin für die Botanik, pages 151 & 153.
Rastetter 1983. Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, 2: 161-188. Fünfter Beitrag zur Pilzflora des Oberelsaß.
Roger’s mushrooms, at http://www.rogersmushrooms.com
Russian Red Book Plants; Красная Книга России, at http://biodat.ru/db/rbp/rb.php?src=1&vid=527
Sikora & Neubauer 2015. Chrońmy Przyrodę Ojczystą, 71(5): 368-379. Nowe stanowiska i występowanie soplówki jeżowatej. Hericium erinaceus w Polsce — New sites and occurrence [sic] of the Bearded Tooth Hericium erinaceus in Poland.
Siller et al. 2005. Studia Botanica Hungarica 36, pp. 131–163. Hungarian Distribution of the Legally Protected Macrofungi Species.
Stalpers 1992. Persoonia, 14 (4): 537–541. Albatrellus and the Hericiaceae.
Sultana & Qreshi 2007. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39 (7): 2629–2649. Check List of Basidiomycetes (Aphyllo. and Phragmo.) of Kaghan Valley-11.
Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006. A Field Guide to Insects and Diseases of California Oaks, (USDA PSW GTR-197), pp. 99–101. Hedgehog mushroom, Hericium erinaceus f. erinaceus.
Thongbai et al. 2015 Mycological Progress, 14:91 (23 pages) Review: Hericium erinaceus, an amazing medicinal mushroom.
Trout 2004–2015. “Local observation” was for environs of Boonville, Philo & Yorkville, in Anderson Valley, Mendocino County, California.
Urban 2015. Czech Mycology, 67(1): 95–118. Abstracts of the International Symposium Fungi of Central European Old-Growth Forests, page 117. Substrate specificity does matter — macrofungal succession on coarse woody debris in an old-growth oak forest.
Van Hook 1922. Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science, 1921: 143–148. Indiana Fungi — VI.
Varstvo gozdov / Boletus informaticus, at http://www.zdravgozd.si
Wald et al. 2004. Mycological Research, 108 (12): 1447–1457. Interspecific interactions between the rare tooth fungi, Creolophus cirrhatus, Hericium erinaceus and H. coralloides, and other wood decay species in agar and wood.
[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. Most authorities reject this name. Molecular work not located.]
“? Quercus” “on dead wood” CABI Index of Fungi 2: 311 citing Nikolaeva 1956 Journal of Botany U.S.S.R., 41: 999.
[Given as an accepted species in Index Species Fungorum but most authorities reject. Molecular work not located.]
Considering Banker’s description, the very un-Hericium-like spores, plus his comparison of this to H. crocea (= Sarcodontia crocea); Meruliaceae), the acceptance of this as a valid name seems worth questioning.
ISF also mentions Saccardo 1912 Sylloge Fungorum 21: 373 as a corroborating reference but Saccardo is essentially just repeating Banker 1906 in Latin.
“On a decaying stump of some hard wood, between the bark and the wood.” Banker 1906 (Penn-sylvania, USA).
Hericium erinaceum ssp. erinaceo-abietis
[Not an accepted name.]
Quercus sp. Live tree. Burdsall et al. 1978; also in Ginns 1985 (Virginia, USA).
Both the description and photograph of this suggests it is probably just a youngish H. americanum.
[This name is a misspelling.]
Be aware that culture banks, herbarium data-bases, the National Checklist of Taiwan, a number of patents, assorted publications in analytical, medical &/or nutritional research and even a few mycologists employ the name “Hericium erinaceum (Bull. : Fr.) Pers.” Sometimes this name has appeared in molecular work alongside H. erinaceus.
The name “erinaceum” originated in the literature as a typo made by Persoon in 1818 (on page 251 of Traite sur les Champignons Comestibles).
It is certain that this appearance was through a mistake. Persoon had spelled it correctly as erinaceus in 1794 (in Roemer’s Neues Magazin für die Botanik, page 155), in 1797 (Commentatio de Fungis Clavaeformibus, page 27), in 1801 (Synopsis Methodica Fungorum, page 560) and he did so again in 1825 (Mycologia Europaea, volume 2, page 153). Persoon’s use of the spelling erinaceum is limited to that one instance in 1818.
This can additionally be confirmed to be an error as, in his 1818 entry where the mistake appears, Persoon had cited Bulliard 1797 (page 307 and plate 34), Trattinnick 1805 (page 191) and Paulet 1793 (page 424); all of whom had spelled it erinaceus.
Sadly this spelling was picked up by workers who apparently did not check his references. Due to the error being missed, or at least not questioned, by a small number of prominent workers, today a google search will reveal erinaceus:erinaceum in use, respectively, as 948,000 vs 33,800 results. In some of the latter instances both names are presented to be synonyms but “erinaceum” is actually quite common to find used in Japanese and Chinese analytical and pharmacological literature.
Mycologists are not immune of course, as an example, in 1978, Burdsall et al. 1978 (Mycotaxon, 7(1):1–9) attempted to describe a mushroom they encountered as new taxa Hericium erinaceum ssp. erinaceo-abietis.
They commented that Harrison 1973 (Michigan Botanist,12: 177–194.) had recognized Hericium erinaceum as one of the accepted Hericium species. In an echo of our account above, Harrison had actually inncluded erinaceus and never mentioned erinaceum.
Mycobank (http://www.mycobank.org/name/Hericium%20erinaceum&Lang=Eng) notes erinaceum to be an orthographic variant (i.e. a name with a spelling that entered the literature as a typo or other mistake).
Its use should not only be discouraged but it should be corrected where possible as the code of nomenclature does not permit using alternate spellings of species names.
The International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (now the Shenzhen Code 2018) has some pertinent provisions:
61.1. Only one orthographical variant of any one name is treated as validly published: the form that appears in the original publication […] (See the Code for the acceptable exceptions to this rule.)
61.4. The orthographical variants of a name are to be corrected to the validly published form of that name. Whenever such a variant appears in a publication, it is to be treated as if it appeared in its corrected form.
[Commonly accepted name.]
See note below on H. erinaceum.
Juglans sp. [Fungal ID questioned]
Quercus robur (now = Quercus pedunculata)
Acer macrophyllum (broadleaf maple) DAVFP (BC, Canada).
Acer spp. was mentioned in Henderson 1981.
Albizia julibrissin (silk tree) “annually pruned […] in urban areas.” Global Fungal Red List.
Carpinus betulus (common hornbeam) On dead stump. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).
Carya sp. (hickory) “on a dead log” in Banker 1906 (as Hicoria).
Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) in crevices, wounds and hollows Bresadola 1906 (Europe).
Eucalyptus sp. was mentioned in Harrison 1973 (California, USA). [Eucalyptus successfully also used in Australian cultivation.]
Fagus grandifolia (American beech) On live tree. Ginns 1985 (Pennsylvania, USA).
Fagus sp. (beech) “stump” “fallen beech trunk” Lacheva 2014 (Bulgaria); also Ginns 1985 (UK); and “collected from stumps” Afyon et al. 2009 (Sinop, Boyabat, Turkey).
Fagus sylvatica (European beech) ATCC and Bisko et al. 2016 (the Netherlands); on living and dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2015 (Poland, Czech Repubic, Hungary & Austria); on live and dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia); on live and dead. Sikora & Neubauer 2015 (Poland).
Juglans sp. (walnut) is in Monica 2014. ID question: the included photo appears to be H. laciniatum/coralloides. (Italy).
Notholithocarpus (Lithocarpus) densifolia (tan-oak) On living trees. Local observation by Trout (Mendocino Co, California, USA).
Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore).
Platanus racemosa (California sycamore)
Oudemans (1919 – 1924).
Platanus sp. was also mentioned in Harrison 1973.
Quercus sp. Ginns 1985 (Maryland, USA); on living and dead. Sikora & Neubauer 2015 (Poland); on dead oak. Rastetter 1983 (Germany).
Quercus agrifolia (coast live oak) Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).
Quercus alba (white oak) ATCC (New Jersey); also Ginns 1985 (New Jersey, Pennsylvania, USA) & Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA).
Quercus cerris (turkey oak) Kew Gardens (England); on living and on dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).
Quercus chrysolepis (canyon live oak) Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak) Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA).
Quercus crispula (mizu-nara) (now Q. mongolica) “collected from a trunk of oak tree” Global Catalogue of Microorganisms (Japan) [as H. erinaceum].
Quercus garryana (garry oak) DAVFP (BC, Canada) Two accessions; one with ID question.
Quercus kelloggii (California black oak) Live tree; from branch scar. Local observation by Trout. (Philo, Mendocino County, California, USA); also in Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).
Quercus lobata (valley oak) Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).
Quercus petraea (sessile oak) On living weakened and dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).
Quercus phellos (willow oak) ATCC.
Quercus prinus (chestnut oak) Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA).
Quercus rubra (red oak) ATCC and also Ginns 1985 and also Stalpers 1992 (Virginia, USA).
Quercus spp. was also given in Persoon 1794: 153; on living and dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2015 (Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary & Austria); & also Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).
Quercus velutina (eastern black oak) Ginns 1985 (Pennsylvania, USA); also Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA).
Quercus wislizeni (interior live oak) Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) On dead stump. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).
Robinia sp. (locust) on injured living tree was mentioned in Banker 1906; (also given in Keizer 2008).
Ulmus carpinifolia (smoothleaf elm) (Now = U. minor) On dead log (Slovakia) Kunca & Čiliak 2017.
“On alive trunks of Quercus and Fagus” Nanagulyan & Senn-Irlet 2002 (Armenia).
On oak and Robinia (living trees) “loofbomen (eik, Robinia)” Keizer 2008 (Netherlands).
“living oak and beech” Hallenberg 1983 (C & S Europe; reaching as far north as S Sweden).
“associated with a heart rot of oaks, occasionally on other frondose species, and is usually found growing from knotholes or cracks on living trees. It is recorded on Fagus in a number of states, on Acer spp. (Washington), Eucalyptus (California) and Platanus (Virginia).” Harrison 1972.
“most commonly emerging from wounds in living oaks, often from holes made by woodpeckers; occasionally it is found on locusts or on beeches; sometimes it is found on dead logs. Of fifteen specimens whose habitat was given, ten were on injured living trees; of these seven were Quercus, two Robinia, and one Fagus; the remaining five plants grew on dead logs, one on Quercus, one on Hicoria [Carya], and the others unknown” “…prefers living oaks” Banker 1906.
“On living oak, locust or beech, also occasionally on dead trees” Banker 1906 (USA and Mexico).
“mainly in the wounds of old standing living trees. Most often Fagus sylvatica (beech), occasionally Quercus robur (oak). […] on cut end of felled trees and on trunks of fallen trees” Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (England).
“grows on both living and dead broadleaf trees” Mori et al 2008 (Japan & China).
“beech wood” Wald et al 2004 (England).
“on living beech trees” Afyon et al. 2004 (Sinop, Boyabat, Turkey).
“Quercia, Faggio, Noce e di altre piante decidue. “ (i.e. “Oak, Beech, Walnut [Juglans] & other deciduous species”) Monica 2014 (Italy) Photo appears to be of H. laciniatum/coralloides.
“Causes a white pocket rot of living trees, and is associated with wounds.” Glaeser & Smith 2010.
“grows only on deciduous wood, oak along Pacific Coast, in this area on maple.” Henderson 1981.
“growing from scars on living deciduous trees, especially beech” Images on beech (UK) and on oak (USA) Roger’s mushrooms [http://www.rogersmushrooms.com/gallery/DisplayBlock~bid~6107~gid~~source~gallerydefault.asp]
“Saprobic and parasitic […] fruiting from the wounds of living hardwoods (especially oaks)” Kuo website.
“Solitary from branch scars of living hardwoods or on fallen logs;” Mycoweb (California).
“[…] in the scars of old oaks” Letellier 1826.
“Growing as a weak parasite on trunks and thick branches of old, standing deciduous trees, mainly Quercus and Fagus, often in old wounds, often high above the ground and fruiting many years on the same tree. It occurs in old, deciduous forests but also on planted trees in parks and along roadsides. ECCF 2001 (“Widespread in Europe”).
“undisturbed beech [Fagus] and oak [Quercus] forests with high air humidity, in the cracks and cavities of living, old or dead trunks, fallen logs and stumps.” Siller et al. 2005 (Hungary).
Bisko et al. 2016 listed culture collections from Nevada, China, Netherlands & Taiwan.
[Commonly accepted name.]
Quercus robur (now = Quercus pedunculata)
Abies alba (silver fir) Global Catalogue of Microorganisms (Czechoslovakia, also from Yugoslavia).
Abies sp. (fir) ATCC (Yugoslavia).
Acer (maple) or Fagus (beech) Ginns 1984 (Virginia).
Alnus sp. (alder) was mentioned in Harrison 1973 (Oregon).
Betula alba (silver birch) Ginns 1985 (Sweden).
Betula papyrifera (white birch) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada).
Betula papyrifera (white birch) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as = H. laciniatum).
Betula sp. “rotting” Ginns 1985; also “windfall” Global Catalogue of Microorganisms (Serpukhov District, Russia).
Carpinus (hornbeam) or Fagus (beech) Ginns 1984 (UK).
Carya sp. (hickory) “grows from dead wood” “on a dead hickory” Coker 1918 (North Carolina, USA) (as Manina flagellum).
Fagus orientalis (oriental beech) was mentioned in Doğan et al. 2005 (Turkey) See comments below.
Fagus sp.: “stump” Lacheva 2014 (Bulgaria); also Ginns 1985 (Denmark); also Hallenberg 1983 (Denmark, France, Sweden, Yugoslavia); also Bisko et al. 2016 (Ukraine); also Abrego et al. 2017. Arnold 2001 proposed Hericium coralloides as an indicator species for undisturbed beech forests.
Fagus sylvatica (European beech) ATCC (Denmark); also Stalpers 1992 (Ostrava, Czechoslovakia).
“fallen decayed trunks of Fagus sylvatica and other deciduous trees, and exceptionally on Abies” Hallenberg 1983 (as = H. clathroides). [Noted no reaction with p-cresol.]
Fraxinus excelsior was mentioned at the Global Fungal Red List.
Fraxinus sp. (ash) was mentioned in Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK).
Morus sp. (mulberry) was mentioned in Persoon 1794: 151. “Quercum, etiam ad Fagos et Abietis, et in Italia ex Batarra […], in Ulmis et Moris provenit.”
Notholithocarpus (Lithocarpus) densifolia (tan-oak) Common on dropped limbs, fallen trunks, on dead standing trees, inside hollows (as both growth forms).
Local observation by Trout (Mendocino Co. California, USA).
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo) “on decayed log” Van Hook 1922 (Indiana, USA) (as Hydnum caput-ursi).
Picea glauca (white spruce) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum).
Picea sp. (spruce) DAVFP (BC, Canada) (as = H. laciniatum and H. ramosum).
Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum).
Populus spp. Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba , Canada).
Populus sp. (poplar) DAVFP (BC, Canada) (as = H. laciniatum and H. ramosum); also Ginns 1985 (Ontario, Canada).
Populus tacamahaca (black cottonwood) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum).
Populus tremula (quaking aspen) Ginns 1985 (Sweden).
Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada); also DAVFP (BC, Canada) (as = Hericium laciniatum and Hericium ramosum); also Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum).
Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood) DAVFP (BC, Canada. Most common host species in BC collections.) (as = Hericium laciniatum and H. ramosum) Also Ginns 1985.
Quercus cerris (Turkey oak) “on coarse woody debris” Urban 2015 (Austria).
Quercus dilata (tilonj) “on dead parts of trunk” Sultana & Qreshi 2007 (Pakistan) (as H. ramosum).
Quercus robur (English oak) “on decaying trunk” Ginns 1985 (Sweden).
Salix sp. (willow) Ginns 1985 (Ontario, Canada).
Tilia sp. mentioned in Russian Red Book Plants (Russian Federation).
Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock) DAVFP (BC, Canada) (as laciniatum & ramosum).
Ulnus spp. (elm) was mentioned in Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK).
“fallen decayed trunks of Fagus” Hallenberg 1983 (Sweden).
“on angiosperm wood” Stalpers 1992 (Epping forest, England).
“Common in Iowa on dead logs of frondose species.” Miller 1935. (Iowa) (as = Hericium laciniatum/coralloides).
“logs on ground. Mostly Beech, also on Fraxinus and Ulnus” Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK).
“Beech wood” Wald et al 2004.
“On beech and hickory logs” Banker 1906 (Canada and USA: NY to CA) (as = Hericium laciniatum/ramosum).
“most commonly on Acer spp., frequent on Fagus and Betula, single collections on Ulmus, Carya, and Fraxinus. It is the only species seen on cottonwood and aspen (Populus spp.) in the west. Single collections on Alnus (Oregon) and live oak (California), and in Alaska on Betula and Populus.” Harrison 1973 (as Hericium ramosum).
“grows on stumps and trunks of dead hardwoods, mainly birch, rarely beech, elm, alder, oak, linden [Tilia sp.], aspen […]” Russian Red Book Plants (Russian Federation).
“fruits from dead hardwood logs and stumps,” “Saprobic and possibly parasitic…typically fruiting from fallen hardwoods branches and stumps, but very rarely reported from the wounds of living hardwoods (perhaps as a result of misidentification);” Kuo website.
“grows only on deciduous wood, usually poplar.” Henderson 1981.
“exclusively on deciduous wood” Harrison 1973 (as H. ramosum).
“decayed log” ATCC (UK).
“hardwood logs” Ostry et al 2011.
“on hardwood logs” Mycoweb (California) (as H. ramosum).
“Grows on prostrate trunks of trees of various kinds.” Hyams 1900 (North Carolina, USA).
H. caput-medusae “on the dead woods”; H. coralloides “on the oldest tree trunks, and mainly on oaks.” Letellier 1826.
“on Fagus orientalis trees” “in conifer forest” “on beech trees” “on oak trees” Doğan et al. 2005 (Turkey). However, notice in Doğan’s work that coralloides is presented as being synonymous with alpestre, ‘erinaceum’ AND ramosum. In going through his references Doğan appears to also include abietis as a synonym?
Maas Geesteranus 1959 held a similar view in asserting that coralloides was only found on conifers.
Thongbai et al. 2015 also purported coralloides to occur only conifers, probably drawing this from the literature, such as Maas Geesteranus, as they claimed it occurred exclusively on conifers. No reference was included by Thongbai on this particular point.
Listed as being found on Abies and various conifers in Rastetter 1983 (Germany)
It seems sound, where reference material still exists in tissue banks, to suggest a re-evaluation of the European coralloides reported on conifers as possibly alpestre and of the American coralloides reported on conifers as possibly being abietis?
[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. Most workers consider this to be a synonym for coralloides.]
Abies sp. (fir) Tanchaud 2015 (France) (given = H. ramosum).
Fagus sylvatica (beech) Bisko et al. 2016 (Czech Republic).
“Galio sylvatici-Carpinetum with Fagus”, “Deschampsio flexuosae-Fagetum (=Fago-Quercetum, Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum)”.
Lisiewska 2006 (Poland) (as = Hericium ramosum).
“ad truncos pineos putridos inventum.” Persoon 1794 (Russia near Ob River).
The host accounts given suggest a reevaluation of the specific identifications might be of value.