Spring is almost here!

A recent view of the lion’s mane chamber

A slideshow and talk was recently given to the Mendocino Coast Mushroom Club. It was a lot of fun that included meeting a bunch of really nice mushroom people!

I had hoped to load that slideshow to the website but encountered some technical difficulties. It was instead turned into a ~157mb PDF that can be accessed HERE. The only slide that did not import was the video above.

Lion’s manes are back!

The first harvest of a few lion’s manes occurred this week. Unsurprisingly they all sold at yesterday’s market. More are on the way for this Saturday’s Farmers Market and for next week.

Hericium erinaceus 11 september 2018

Hericium erinaceus 11 September 2018

August update

We decided to take advantage of the hot weather for pressure washing the entire facility. We will be back at the Farmer’s Markets in early September.

18 July update

We experienced camera failure today but this proved to be another week with more than 23 pounds of lion’s manes harvested.

 

Lion’s mane in mid-July

Summer always takes effort to keep these cool weather mushrooms happy.

As soon as we get through our current round of bags, we will perform our annual summer cleaning cycle. That will occur in less than two weeks.

We plan to be offline as briefly as possible as the demand for these is presently running high.

See you at the Farmer’s Market

There were a lot of happy people in Ukiah on Saturday.

See you in Ft. Bragg today.

We had a harvest of more than 9 lbs on the 6th.

Another harvest of 7.6 lbs occurred last night.

And another harvest will occur late today. (It was more than 6 lbs.)

 

 

Another great week.

This week saw a total harvest of 21 pounds of lion’s manes and a much smaller amount of shiitakes. Our mushrooms have been selling out the past couple of weeks so we will keep expanding our production to fulfill the growing demand.

We hope to see you at the Ft. Bragg, Mendocino or Ukiah certified Farmers Market.

Hericium erinaceus

Lion’s mane mushrooms (Hericium erinaceus)

 

 

 

See you at the Farmer’s Market.

Lion’s mane harvests are still on the light side (4 kg were harvested from the two trays shown fruiting in the previous video) but despite that they made some people in Mendocino happy last week (and a couple in Ukiah). A light offering of our mushrooms will be at Ft. Bragg today and more at Ukiah on Saturday; with lots more to come and another round of bags scheduled to be opened and added today. We will also be at Mendocino next week.

Another week of mushroom growth; shown on Tuesday afternoon..

 

AND, while the next shiitakes to be harvested from our spawn bag production are still some weeks in the future, the first few shiitakes are beginning on some of the ricks that were plugged last summer.

 

A young shiitake mushroom (Lentinulus edodes)

A young shiitake mushroom (Lentinulus edodes)

 

Spring in 2018

We are looking forward to the 2018 Farmer’s Market season!
This year we will be sharing mushrooms with The Forest People so we will be offering each other’s mushrooms; our lion’s manes and their oysters respectively. One or both of us hopes to see you in Mendocino, Ft. Bragg or Ukiah at the MCFarm certified farmers market.
A look at the Hericium fruiting chamber today is below. It appears that we will be back at a steady pace again within the next two weeks.

Hericium erinaceus -- Lion's mane

These are ready to harvest.

 

The garden is gearing up for Spring also.

We will soon have gobo (burdock root) and will be bringing some incredible ha gobo leaves to the next farmer’s market. This has become one of our favorite greens. It has a flavor similar to collards but with a luscious velvety mouth feel.

 

Ha gobo leaf

Ha gobo leaf

New life in 2018

After resolving a technical problem with our ISP, all of our web content and email occurring since the 26th of last July has vanished.

Some views of the Hericium fruiting chamber are below; taking us up to the point of a fungus gnat invasion in January. We shut down following that discovery (look for discolored or prematurely toothy fruiting bodies to see its beginning), decontaminated the entire facility, built another layer of entryway protection and are now in the process of refilling the chamber with bags again for 2018 Farmers Market.
New videos will be added soon showing our progress but for now here are some looks at our experience occurring between late July 2017 and January 2018.

Two weeks of growth: part 2 — 28 July 2017 IMG 2607

Two weeks of growth: part 3 — 28 July 2017 IMG 2620

Two weeks of growth: part 4 — 1 aug 2017 IMG 2622

Two weeks of growth: part 5 — 1 aug 2017 IMG 2642

Two weeks of growth: part 6 — 5 aug 2017 IMG 2661

Two weeks of growth: part 7 — 9 aug 2017 IMG 2676

Hericium erinaceus 2018 January 04 IMG 5042

Hericium erinaceus 13 Jan 2018 IMG 5335

Hericium erinaceus 19 Jan 2018 IMG 5793

Hericium erinaceus 25 january 2018 IMG 5959

26 July 2017

The Hericium fruiting chamber today.

This year’s spring rains added some challenges but we are now in the process of getting our production back up to speed.
We look forward to seeing you at the Boonville Farmer’s Market.

 

Another great year!

2017 promises to be an exiting year.  We hope to see you at the Boonville Farmer’s Market.

As of February 25, 2017, we can now accept payments using credit cards or PayPal at the Farmer’s Market.

Today’s mushrooms!

Today was a great day for lion’s manes.

This was the view just before harvest:

lion's manes 6 Oct 2016

lion’s manes 6 Oct 2016

lion's manes 6 Oct 2016

lion’s manes 6 Oct 2016

lion's manes 6 Oct 2016

These are heading for some happy people!

I noticed some minor water drippage problems that I need to fine tune as I lost a couple of mushrooms to it. Check out the upper side of this beautiful lion’s mane. Notice that grey spot? This otherwise nice looking mushroom is unsaleable because of that.

water damage

Water damaged mushroom. Dripping water causes this.

Off the subject of lion’s manes for a moment, I was surprised to see this Pleurotus fruiting on a familiar Hericium tree.

Pleurotus

Pleurotus

This gorgeous lion’s mane (Hericium erinaceus) was not as much of a surprise since this is the sixth year for this spot but it did surprise me by being so early. Around now has been more typical to find it at a much earlier stage of growth. Hericium coralloides has also been abundant on this same fallen trunk during those same years but it won’t get going until after it gets cold.

WIld lion's mane 6 October 2016

WIld lion’s mane 6 October 2016

WIld lion's mane 6 October 2016

WIld lion’s mane 6 October 2016

WIld lion's mane 6 October 2016

WIld lion’s mane 6 October 2016

We can’t sell wild Hericium erinaceus in California but we sure do enjoy eating them.

Recent views

We made a small harvest for market in between these two sets of images but thought it would be of interest to see some paired images from 30 September and 1 October as they show how fast lion’s manes can grow.

 

cultivated Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-09-30

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-10-01

Hericium erinaceus 2016-09-30

Hericium erinaceus 2016-09-30


cultivated Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-10-01


 

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-09-30

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus 2016-10-01

 

Good CO2 levels for Hericium erinaceus

Good CO2 levels for Hericium erinaceus

They’re back

Lion’s manes will be available again soon; beginning with next week’s Boonville Farmer’s Market.

We will also have a few shiitakes, assorted tomatoes and some amazing potatoes.

We look forward to seeing you there.

2 March 2016

Amazing Mushrooms!by Natural Products of Boonville

We look forward to seeing you at this week’s Farmer’s Market.

We will have lots of lion’s manes, a few Hericium americanum and shiitakes.
Also some potatoes for your planting delight.

 

24 January 2016

We are clearly fast approaching the point of establishing the maximum production capacity of this fruiting chamber.  The blobby mushrooms are all young Hericium americanum.

(https://www.youtube.com/embed/7Onw0aN1hYI)

 

24 January 2016

CO2, current temp & humidity 24 January 2016

 

The CO2 level is still running a little high (650 ppm) but I’m hoping to have that dialed in within the next couple of days by adding a larger vent fan (replacing one of the existing ones – a 4″- with a 7-inch inline exhast fan).

RIght now it is where we want (between 450-500 ppm) only until the chamber gets more than half way full. Preventing the massive spore load from clogging the insect screening has also become a recurrent maintenance task as the accumulation of spores plays a major role in interferring with good air exchange. The air inside of the fruiting chamber is completely replaced with fresh air six times every hour.

Prior five-day max/min temperature on 24 January 2016

Prior five-day max/min temperatures on 24 January 2016

19 November 2015

It is actually the 4th of December and I had hoped to post this pair of youtube videos a few days ago so am editing an older post.

The first view was following a harvest and the beginning of another round of open bags. Some from the previous round are still going and on their second flush.

 

 

This was the view on 24 November.

 

There is another video at youtube that was taken in between those. The camera had become lost and does not reliably date media so the day it was taken is unclear but was likely on the 21st or 22nd of November.

Lions mane

Hericium erinaceus 24 October 2015

Cultivated: 167 grams (1/3rd lb.)

IMGP8983

 

Hericium erinaceus 1 November 2015

Wild: 730 grams

Hericium-erinaceus-1nov2015

We can’t sell wild mushrooms but we certainly do eat them! Part of this one was delicious last night cooked with chicken and vegetables.

And there was another Lion’s mane that was found today (2 November). Harvesting mushrooms such as this one can be potentially dangerous.

Hericium-erinaceus-2nov2015

I did not manage to bring this one down as a single, 791 gram, piece.

Hericium-erinaceus-2nov2015

There was another one above it that was easily 30+ feet higher on the tree (so it was safe from me).

Hericium tree

A Chinese adage is good to keep in mind considering Hericium erinaceus eats trees:
Fools and smoke like to climb high

Hericium tree

This is that same tree when I checked it a month ago (5 October)

Hericium tree

 

Getting back into gear

Things are moving along well as we begin refilling the Hericium fruiting chamber.

These images are from 22 October 2015.

We just completed a nice harvest, removed those trays and replaced them with the spawn bags that are ready. We hope to see you at this weekend’s Farmer’s Market.
It will be the second to last certified Farmer’s Market of the season.

 

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

 

Hericium erinaceus

Forming fruit

 

Hericium erinaceus

Top tray is forming fruit; bottom tray was just opened

 

Hericium erinaceus

Just opened

 

Hericium erinaceus

Just opened

 

Hericium erinaceus

Bags at various stages of colonization

 

Hericium erinaceus

Colonizing bags

 

Hericium erinaceus

New arrivals

 

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

 

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

What is in our mushrooms?

1 lb of shiitake

What goes into our mushrooms is really simple.

We start with tan-oak (Lithocarpus densifolia) sawdust from the local business Frank’s Firewood.
Frank is in the business of producing and selling firewood but that process creates a lot of great sawdust which is perfect for our needs. Frank refuses to take in any trees that have been killed or treated with herbicides.

Frank's Firewood sawdust from Frank's Firewood sawdust from Frank's Firewood

sawdust from Frank's Firewood
sawdust
To that is added organic wheat bran and the highest-quality pure gypsum that is considered to be ‘organic’. We are not presently recognized as organic producers but do our best to include only pure ingredients.

When we make spawn, we use organic rye grain. If we order commercial grain spawn it comes from a certified organic producer.

rye

The only other thing that we incorporate in the recipe for our mushroom growing media is the high-quality water from our protected well.

We are taking it one step farther and as of late February 2016 will be using only organic nonGMO dextrose which is derived from grapes and imported from Italy thanks to Naturalia Ingredients and Ciranda. There was so much difficulty locating organic dextrose that we have decided to offer small quantities at reasonable prices to other mushroom producers who are wanting to use entirely organic ingredients.

organic nonGMO dextrose

Lion’s mane are delicate and fragile mushrooms that can bruise easily (compare ours to those from other producers). To minimize handling, and any bruising or discoloration, we carefully pick each individual Lion’s manes using a bakery tissue and gently nestle them together loosely. Most mushrooms, such as shiitakes, don’t require that. Whenever possible all of our mushrooms are harvested directly into their resale packaging. Boxes such as the one below promptly go into refrigeration to ensure you of the longest possible shelflife.

The most important thing we put into the production of all of our mushrooms is a lot of love.

Freshly picked Lion's manes

Freshly picked Lion’s manes

Simple is good.

Hericium erinaceus

 

 

 

5 October 2015

Our summer maintenance is complete and everything is just beginning to gear back up towards full production.

The conditions inside are as close to being perfect as I could want for keeping the lion’s manes happy.

fruiting-chamber-1130AM-5oct2015-IMGP8585

Carbon dioxide level & temperature meter

fruiting-chamber-1130AM-5oct2015-IMGP8584A Max/Min Thermometer

The Lion’s manes are doing great. They even permitted a small harvest for last weekend’s Farmer’s Market.

lion's manesTo be harvested soon.

lion's manesTo be harvested soon.

lion's manesTo be harvested soon.

lion's manesFruiting and getting ready.

lion's manes-to-beGetting ready to fruit; two have small ones already

heading towards their dayHeading towards their day

inoculated on 4 OctoberJust inoculated 4 October

 
The outside temperatures cooling off at nighttime lately triggered a log to fruit. You can see why we’ve grown fonder of bag production as it leaves the mushrooms really clean by comparison.

Lion's mane

Lion's mane

Lion's mane

Lion's mane

Lion's mane

 

We hope to see you at Saturday’s Farmer’s Market in Boonville.

Held Saturdays from 10AM-1230PM in the Boonville Hotel parking lot until the end of this month.

 

Equinox 2015

The hot temperatures lately seemed to suggest a perfect opportunity to clean the fruiting chamber and get ready for some nice Hericium weather again (outdoors and indoors).

After summer maintenance

After summer maintenance

After summer maintenance

After summer maintenance

That process all went great but for reasons we do not understand recovery is proceeding a little slowly. We had hoped to have the lion’s manes back in action for this week’s Farmer’s Market but it appears they won’t catch up with the interest until midweek next week.

the fruiting chamber is back on

the fruiting chamber is back on

the fruiting chamber is back on and starting to fill again

the fruiting chamber is back on and starting to fill again

lion's manes on their way

lion’s manes on their way

Shiitakes are still ongoing and increasing in numbers.

Shiitakes

Shiitakes

 

Tomatoes in recent weeks:

betimesmacbeth-IMGP7946

Betimes Macbeth

black-brown-boar-IMGP7850

Black-brown boar

black-brown-boar-IMGP7852

Black-brown boar

chef-hubert-IMGP7864

Chef Hubert

black-brown-boar-IMGP7857

Black-brown boar

CherokeePurple-IMGP7888

Cherokee Purple

CherokeePurple-IMGP7959

Cherokee Purple

ClackamathBlueberry-IMGP7975

Clackamath Blueberry

greenbrandy-IMGP7936

Green brandy

greenbrandy-IMGP7973

Green brandy

IMGP7894

Betimes Macbeth and Matt’s Folly

IMGP7942

A delicious mixture

yellow-heirlooms-IMGP7977

Yellow heirlooms

stripedstudents-IMGP7972

Striped students

stripedstudents-IMGP7963

Striped students

stripedstudents-IMGP7960

Striped students

MattsFolly-IMGP7891

Matt’s Folly

yellow-gold-heirlooms-IMGP7938

 

 

Cooking mushrooms

Downloadable PDF version of this page

Cooking with the Lion’s Mane mushrooms (Hericium species)

There are many ways to cook the Lion’s mane (Hericium) mushrooms.
My favorite two:

1)  Cut into 1/2 inch slices or if solid and very large the slices also get re-sliced into 1/2” wide strips. Some people prefer to tear them into pieces. Try both approaches to discover which you like best.

Wild harvested mushrooms, including Lion’s mane, will usually go into a dry fry pan at the beginning to ‘sweat out’ a lot of liquid (and flavor). which will then take a few minutes to reduce and be re-sorbed back into the mushroom (usually 6-8).
If the hericiums were cultivated, or if they were wild harvested during periods of non-rainy weather, they usually need a few tablespoons of water to be added at first (and occasionally more later) to prevent scorching.
If oil is used it should be only enough to prevent sticking. Too much results in frying the mushroom. Ideally just small bits of water should be used at this point.

The mushrooms should be started on a medium high heat and cooked for around 1-2 minutes with stirring — just to get them completely hot quickly, then the heat should then be reduced to medium low or low and they should be cooked covered for another 15 minutes with occasional stirring. Halfway into the cooking add a small amount of butter or a 2:1 mixture of olive oil and butter.
Wine or other optional liquid seasonings should be added only towards the end of the cooking process or they can be absorbed to the point of obscuring the delicate flavor of the lion’s mane.

2)  Start out the same as above but add the butter and/or oil much sooner, as soon as liquids have been resorbed by the mushrooms. (be sure that all excess liquid has been resorbed before adding butter/oil) and cook over moderate heat until the edges and teeth begin to get golden-brown and crunchy.  This will require  a bit more oil than the first method plus very close monitoring towards the end, to avoid scorching.

All Hericium mushroom species freeze well once cooked. They can be prepared when available, packed into half-pint jars, and frozen for use at another time.

Easy Chicken with Lion’s Mane, peppers & potatoes

Thinly slice or dice a medium onion and a largish clove of garlic.
Lightly cook in a frying pan in oil. I greatly like a blend of Avocado oil and roasted garlic olive oil.
Add 1/2 dozen baby bell peppers cut into quarters.
When the color of the onions and the peppers begins to change, turn over and add 1-3/4# organic boneless chicken thighs, approximately 2 cups of (four medium sized)
potatoes or the equivalent in small potatoes,  roughly same amount of Hericium as potatoes (cut into 1/2 inch sections; or if large the slices should be resliced into 1/2″ wide strips) approximately two cups once chopped. I like to add one or two slices of butter at that point as well.
Cover and cook on medium-low to medium heat until the chicken is done.  Usually 15-20 minutes.
Salt and/or pepper to taste, if needed.
Hot peppers may be added with the bell peppers if heat is desired and the chicken may be omitted if a vegetarian dish is desired.
If the chicken is omitted more monitoring is required and a few tablespoons of water may be needed in order to prevent scorching of the vegetables.

 

Cooking with Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes)

Cook them in good oil such as butter, olive-oil:butter, avocado oil, etcetera until the slices are limp.
Shiitakes are versatile. They can be stir fried, baked plain or stuffed, marinated and grilled, added whole to the vegetables that get cooked along with a roast or in an earthen oven, added to soups, stews or meat dishes, or they can be cooked alone and enjoyed as  dish. Precooked shiitakes can also then be combined with other foods such as omelettes, vegetables, soups and salads. It may be convenient to cook enough mushrooms for adding to 2 or 4 meals.  Cooked shiitakes freeze acceptably.
Butter, garlic & a little salt may compliment shiitakes own distinctive flavor.
Stems of shiitakes are most often fibrous and very tough. They should be removed before cooking.
Thicker stems can be very thinly sliced and fried until golden brown in butter or butter and oil for a crispy-to-chewy treat. Thinner, tougher stems can be dried and ground into a powder for later use as a thickening agent in soups, stews, stock reductions and many types of sauces. Or stems *can* be discarded.

Shiitake ‘bacon’ with sea-palm fronds

Slice shiitakes thin but not too thinly. A couple to several (2-4) mm is fine. Try to slice them evenly.
Place the slices into a bowl and add a minimum amount of your favorite cooking oil then gently stir extremely well. A variant of this is to spread the slices out on a cooking sheet and lightly mist with a light spray of oil before tossing to coat all surfaces. It is important to not use too much oil.
The goal is to get a bare minimum but thorough coating of oil on all of the mushrooms. A special touch can be created by adding a drop of liquid smoke to the oil and shaking very well before oiling the mushrooms.
Once this is done lightly season with sea salt and again mix thoroughly. Other seasonings can also be added but keeping it simple has great results.
Spread the shiitakes out into a single layer on a foil or parchment paper lined baking sheet. Sprinkle the top with coarse sea salt.
Bake in a preheated 350°F oven, checking frequently, especially towards the end.
You want them to cook completely dry, turning brown with some golden parts. This takes a few minutes (15 or more minutes is common; the hotter the oven the faster it goes but monitor them carefully as rotating the pan may be required in some ovens. The last few minutes of this goes very fast so it requires a close eye to prevent burning.
Using care, transfer the baked mushrooms from the hot sheet into a bowl.
Let it cool and you now have a bowl of shiitake bacon.
Break some crunchy dried sea palm fronds into smaller pieces & toss with your shiitake bacon. Enjoy.
If you are an optimist this can be packed into a jar and placed into a refrigerator for storage. If you are a realist you will probably leave it available on the counter knowing it will be consumed very quickly.

Caution: this food item may be found to be compulsively addictive.

It is important to cook shiitakes thoroughly.

Approximately one in 50 or more people appear to have a sensitivity to uncooked or undercooked shiitakes. Most shiitakes consumed in the world are dried and then rehydrated; drying is not the same as cooking and a thorough cooking is still needed.
In those rare individuals who are allergic, consuming undercooked or raw shiitakes may result in a skin rash resembling poison oak but accompanied by characteristic scratch-like lines (“flagellate”). If there is an allergic reaction, the rash begins 24-72 hr following ingestion and can last for up to 14 days. It resolves spontaneously without any treatment but a doctor can shorten its duration.
Most people are not allergic. Thoroughly cooked shiitakes appear to be OK for everyone.

29 June 2015

Our shiitakes are finally getting going again!

shiitake

Shiitakes!

This first small round of bags is showing some signs of heat stress but they are just the beginning. The new fruiting chamber should be able to keep the shiitakes cool enough to stay happy this summer. It just came online within the past few days.

Inside of the new shiitake fruiting chamber

Inside of the new shiitake fruiting chamber

The day before market

Here is a look at a few of the mushrooms that will be going to the Farmer’s Market tomorrow (23 May 2015).

This week the Boonville Farmer’s Market is being held at its regular time from 10-1230 in the Boonville Hotel parking lot followed by a special event at the Madrones in Philo from 1-4.

Three Hericium species will be available this week and the shiitakes are getting closer to fruiting with every passing day.

Hericium americanum (Bear’s head) is winding down. This cycle has been a market-test to see how well people like it so the availability is still limited. If it does well at this weekend’s market I’ll start up another run of it and it will return to production in a few weeks.

22may2015

Hericium americanum

22may2015

Hericium americanum

22may2015

young Hericium americanum

Hericium coralloides (Coral tooth) will be there in very limited numbers for the lucky few people who can grab them first.

22may2015

Hericium coralloides

And the Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane) will be there of course.

22may2015

Hericium erinaceus

22may2015

Hericium erinaceus

22may2015

Hericium erinaceus

This was the view inside of the fruiting chamber today:

22may2015

Hericium erinaceus and some americanum

22may2015

Hericium erinaceus and some americanum

22may2015

Hericium erinaceus getting started for next week

22may2015

All three species

22may2015

Hericium americanum (top) and Hericium erinaceus (below)

22may2015

Hericium erinaceus

22may2015

Hericium americanum and Hericium coralloides

22may2015

Hericium erinaceus and Hericium coralloides

These bags are heading towards being ready for next week:

22may2015

Hericium erinaceus on supplemented sawdust

And I thought it might be time for another tour inside of the fruiting chamber:

A day before market

Just a look at a few of the mushrooms that are going to the Farmer’s Market tomorrow (16 May 2015).

Hericium

Hericium erinaceus

Some Hericium americanum (compare these to a few days ago).
For a sense of scale, those bags are 9 inches wide.

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

This smallish one was really anxious to get some spores out.

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

The tray on top is regular Hericium erinaceus lion’s manes that will start putting on fruit in the next few days. The row below that are the Hericium americanum that are being harvested this week.

Hericium

Hericiums getting ready and ready to go

These bags are merrily incubating and will be ready to open for fruiting  in another week.

Hericium

More Hericium in the making

I love Hericiums!

I’m not just saying that as a figure of speech. I really love the experience of eating, smelling, touching, seeing or just being near any of the Hericiums.

The new fruiting chamber is working very well. Fine tuning the misting is still ongoing but the lion’s mane mushrooms all really love it in there.

These images show a few of what was fruiting today. For some reason I failed to take photographs of the last two lots which were harvested and delivered within just the last few days.

Bags that were opened but which are showing no fruit in these images were either just harvested on Thursday and Friday or else just entered the rotation and will begin fruiting within this week.

Lots of learning is still ongoing. For example I’ve found that if I make cuts in the bags that are too large, a little bit of the sawdust and/or grain media ends up on the back of the mushroom. Not a big deal but it is also avoidable. If I make them too small, the fruit can spontaneously fall off as it gets big. If I do it just right, they almost want to drop into my hand with a very clean separation.

Alternating cycles of intense heavy fog with periods that drop to 85% relative humidity has also been appreciated by them. I’ve also increased the total chamber venting time by 8 minutes per hour due to the CO2 level increasing as the chamber started becoming more filled with bags. Exhaust fans vent the air six times every hour.
I’ve read that lion’s manes don’t like light during colonization. I’ve even grown them that way. They do fine starting in total darkness (and also do fine with ZERO supplementation) but grow much slower and take longer before their first fruiting. They seem to appreciate loght and they grow a lot better with it. As soon as they are on sawdust, the incubating bags here currently experience a 10/14 day/night cycle. I’m still learning so this ratio may change.  Light also noticeably contributes positively to mycelial growth. Light does add some problems for the same reason it has value though due to the risk of the LED cables behind the trays stimulating growth through the filter patch leading to fruit forming and becoming trapped behind the bags. The precautions against light also have value for decreasing the incidence of microfruiting of Hericium on agar and grain.

Hericium bags waiting to be opened

Hericium bags waiting to be opened Inside of their foggy fruiting chamber

Inside the fruiting chamber

Inside the fruiting chamber; both trays were harvested yesterday except for the small ones

Inside the fruiting chamber

Inside the fruiting chamber; top tray is newly opened; lower tray was largely harvested yesterday.

 

The Hericium americanum are starting to really develop. I’m not sure if I am going to wait until the teeth develop or not. One that I picked and added to dinner as a test was great.

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

Hericium americanum

 

This Hericium coralloides was delicious.

Hericium coralloides on sawdust

Hericium coralloides

 

Lots of Hericium erinaceus have been fruiting

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

 

And “Shanti”, a really nice multilobed Hericium erinaceus variant, is also growing very well.

"Shanti"; a variant form of Hericium erinaceus

“Shanti”; a variant form of Hericium erinaceus

A variant form of Hericium erinaceus

“Shanti”; a variant form of Hericium erinaceus

"Shanti"; a variant form of Hericium erinaceus

“Shanti”; a variant form of Hericium erinaceus

IMGP6311

"Shanti"; a variant of Hericium erinaceus

“Shanti”; a variant of Hericium erinaceus

Shiitakes

Shiitakes will be coming soon.

To whet your appetite, here are a couple of pictures from an earlier fruiting cycle.

shiitake

shiitake

Cultivated Hericium erinaceus

Comments about our cultivated Lion’s mane mushrooms

 

inside of the fruiting chamber

inside of the fruiting chamber

 

Why do we only sell cultivated Hericium?

Why not add some *wild* harvested Hericium?

a wild Hericium erinaceus

a wild Hericium erinaceus

 

It is certainly possible to harvest the Hericium species and many other mushrooms from the wild. Both of us have been avid foragers of wild mushrooms for some years now, to be part of our own diet, and we consume a rather substantial quantity of wild Hericium species every year, but we sell only cultivated mushrooms.

 

capturing a wild Hericium erinaceus

‘capturing’ a wild Lion’s mane (Hericium erinaceus)

 

There are many benefits of mushroom cultivation.
A few of those include:
1) a predictable supply that is not based on lucky weather, seasonally limited fruiting periods, and the timing of visitation all coinciding productively,
2) the ability to harvest only the highest-quality mushrooms at their peak,
3) knowing that they are free from molds,
4) the ability to prevent excessive moisture content (a frequent challenge with wild lion’s mane especially when large),
5) the production of fungal bodies that are clean (rather than containing forest debris, and many tiny beetles , fungus gnats, their larvae, and mites, often inside of the mushroom’s tissues, as is quite common with wild-collected lion’s mane),
6) much greater personal safety during harvesting; compared to climbing or otherwise recovering fruiting bodies from a rotting tree (& it completely avoids the uniquely unpleasant but harmless experience of “catching” a large falling lion’s mane with one’s forehead),
AND
7) there is the added benefit of control over the ingredients of the media; ensuring the least possible risk of any type of heavy metal accumulation.

That last point is an important concern about which many people appear to be aware.
We commonly associate heavy metals with industrial pollution and can forget that potentially toxic elements such as lead, mercury, cadmium, nickel and arsenic are not uncommonly natural and normal minor components of rocks and soil. Many of the edible mushroom species appear to have the ability to accumulate one or more of these metals IF they are present and bioavailable in their surroundings.
Cultivation permits the grower to know, within reason, exactly what is contained in their growing media and minimize that risk. In the EU, maximum permissible levels of heavy metals have been established for both wild and cultivated mushroom species that are sold to the public. The USA lacks regulation in this particular area.

 

inside our inoculation lab; pressure cookers on left & flow hood on right

inside our inoculation lab; pressure cookers on left & flow hood on right

 

How mushroom cultivation works (a more detailed pictorial will be added here in the future):

All media (whether liquid culture, agar, grain or sawdust) is first cooked in a pressure cooker in an attempt to kill any potential contaminant prior to the inoculation. The inoculation work is performed in front of a hepafiltered flowhood that temporarily creates a clean, almost sterile, working space as the resulting filtered air-flow is free from microbes and mold spores.

Cultures of the edible mushroom species are far more often produced by cloning than from spores. The reason is simple; spores produce a broad range of individuals with different performances and yields. A commercial mushroom producer needs to select for only the most vigorous and productive of those in order to be a successful farmer. Once a good performing clone has been identified and proven by growing it out through the entire fruiting process, future propagation focuses on inoculations using that same clone line. Most, perhaps all, professional cultivators keep an eye out for unusually nice fruiting bodies that might provide a lineage of good production for them.
Clones are created by taking a small piece of tissue from inside of a living mushroom and transferring it to a sterile culture medium of some sort.

 

a bit of tissue in liquid culture; destined to become a clone

a bit of tissue in liquid media; destined to become a clone

 

lion's mane liquid culture

a bit of lion’s mane tissue growing new mycelium  underwater

Commercial sources exist for Hericium erinaceus, and up to three other species (H. americanum, H. clathroides & H. coralloides). They are variously available as mycelial cultures on agar, in petri dishes or slants, and in liquid culture, as well as grain spawn, sawdust spawn intended for plugging logs, hardwood dowels colonized with mycelium, and sometimes even precolonized on sawdust cakes ready-to-fruit.

The growth of cultures that are intended for production are often begun on either agar in a petri dish or in water in a jar that has a filter disk for a lid — either one containing a low concentration of a source of sugar such as dextrose or light malt extract.

This can then be repeated once the colonization has taken place and small portions of the mycelium can be used to inoculate additional plates of agar or liquid culture or at some point either can be transferred onto grain.

 

propagation station showing agar plates, liquid culture and grain

propagation station showing agar plates, liquid culture and grain

 

Each jar of colonized grain can potentially then be used to inoculate more jars of grain. The endpoint for those jars of grain is that they are eventually used to inoculate a number of bags of sawdust that have been supplemented with wheat bran and a mixture of gypsum and oyster shell.

 

Hericium erinaceus mycelium growing like lightningon rye grains

Hericium erinaceus mycelium growing like lightning on rye grains

 

After the bags are inoculated, they get to luxuriate in the cool, moist, protected environment of their fruiting chamber (an insulated shipping container with filtered air and good pre-conditioned ventilation). As soon as the bags are colonized, small cuts are made in a couple of spots to permit the fruit to form on the outside of the bag.
The fruit tends to naturally occur most often on a vertical surface, or even under a negative incline, rather than on top of a horizontal surface. This particular run pictured below is evaluating the yield from a top fruiting arrangement.

 

Inside the fruiting chamber

Inside the fruiting chamber

 

A short tour of the Hericium fruiting chamber:

a cultivated lion's mane just beginning to show its teeth

a cultivated Lion’s mane just beginning to show its teeth

Our favorite time to harvest is when the teeth have just started. The texture is nice, the taste is mildly almost sweet and the shelf-life is longer.

teeth on a wild lion's mane

teeth on a wild Lion’s mane

 

a cultivated lion's mane

a cultivated Lion’s mane

 

Lion's mane

cultivated Lion’s mane

a toothy cultivated lion's mane that is past its prime

a very toothy cultivated lion’s mane that is past its prime

Tomatoes

It is not yet clear exactly what tomatoes we will be offering this year but an update will be added as soon as possible.

These are a few images of last year’s tomatoes (summer 2014).

Clackamath Blueberry

Clackamas Blueberry (an F5 tomato)

Clackamath Blueberry

Clackamas Blueberry (an F5 tomato)

Clackamath Blueberry

Clackamas Blueberry (an F5 tomato)

Green Brandy

Green Brandy

Green Brandy

Green Brandy

 

Green Brandy

Green Brandy

Green Brandy Tomato

Green Brandy

Heirloom pink

Heirloom pink

heirloom pink

heirloom pink

heirloom pink

heirloom pink

Matt's Folly

Matt’s Folly

Matt's Folly

Matt’s Folly

Matt's Folly

Matt’s Folly

Skikomish

Skykomish

Skikomish

Skykomish

Skikomish

Skykomish

Skikomish

Skykomish

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner) Unripe fruit

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

Striped Students (Tom Wagner)

 

 

 

Rau răm

AKA “Vietnamese Cilantro”
Polygonum odoratum Lour. — renamed Persicaria odorata (Lour.) Soják

Polygonum odoratum

Polygonum odoratum

Fresh leaves and young stems are used fresh.

Many common names can be encountered online:
Cambodian: Chi krasang tomhom, Chi pong tea koun
Chinese:  香蓼
Chinese [Cantonese]: 越南香菜 (Yuht nàahm hēung choi), also 喇沙葉 (Lāak sāa yihp) [Singapore Cantonese])
Chinese [Mandarin]: 越南香菜 (Yuè nán xiāng cài), 喇沙葉 (Lā shā yè)
Czech: Kokořík vonný
Danish: Vietnamesisk Koriander
English: Asian mint, Cambodian mint, Hot mint, Kesum, Laksa plant, Perennial coriander, Smartweed, Vietnamese coriander, Vietnamese cilantro, Vietnamese mint (this last common name is shared with Kinh Gioi: Elsholtzia ciliata)
French: Coriandre du Vietnam, Persicaire du Vietnam, Renouée odorante
German: Vietnamesischer Koriander, Wohlriechender Knöterich
Hmong: Luam laws
Hungarian: Vietnámi menta
Khmer: Chi krassang tomhom, Xang-hum
Lao: Phak phew/Phak phaew/Phak pheo
Malay: Dawn laksa/Daun laksa, Dawn kesum/Daun kesom [Singapore]
Manipuri [Meitei-Lon]: Phakpai/Phak-Pai
Portuguese: Hortelã-vietnamita
Russian: Купена лекарственная (Kupiena lekarstvennaya), Горец ароматный (Gomets aromatny)
Singapore: Daun kesom, Laksa herb, Laksa leaves, Laksa plant, Laksa yip
Spanish: Culatro de Vietnam, Culatro
Thai: จันทร์โฉม  (Chan chom), หอมจันทน์   (Hom chan)  [Ayutthaya],  ผักไผ่  (Phak phai/Pak pai/Phak pai),  พริกม้า   (Phrik ma)  [Northeastern Thailand], Pa pao
Vietnamese: Rau Râm

 

 

 

 

Burdock

Burdock root comes from the Greater Burdock or Arctium lappa.

Burdock

Burdock (Arctium lappa)

Once grown as a common and popular vegetable in the European Middle Ages, burdock has inexplicably fallen out of popularity in modern times. It is still quite well-loved and eaten throughout Asia.

 

Brazil: bardana, garduna.
China: ngau pong, niúbàng (牛蒡 ), niu bang zi.
Croatia: čaj od čička, lopuh, lapušina, veliki čičak, veliki ripanj
Czech republic: lopuch větsí.
Denmark: burre.
English-speaking countries: burdock, edible burdock, greater burdock, great burdock, great bur, common burdock, aireve, airup, bachelor’s-buttons (more often applied to Centaurea cyanus), bardane root, bazzies (?), beggar’s button, billy-buttons, bourholm (obsolete), burr seed, clive, clit-bur, great clotbur, clot, clod, cockle-bar, cockle-bur (more often applied to the Xanthium species), cockle-button, cockly-bur, crocklety-bur, cockly, cuckoldy-bur, cuckold-dock, cucklemoors, cuckold-dock, cuckoo-button, eddick (?), edible goberon, flapper-bags, Fox’s clote, happy major, harebur, hardock (also appearing incorrectly as harlock), herrif, hoar-dock, hurr-burr, lappa root, lappa, love leaves, personata, philanthropium. stick-button, sticky buttons, thistle (more often applied to other plants), thorny bur, turkey-bur (name applied to other plants) .
Estonia: suur takjas.
France: glouteron (Codex), artichaut, bardane, bardane comestible, bardane commune, bardane géante, bardane majeure, bardane officinale, bouillon noir, catherinettes, chou d’âne, copeau, croquia, craquia, crakia, grachias, grande bardane, graquias, grateau, gratteau, gratteron, grippe, herbe aux pouilleux, herbe aux seigneurs, herbe aux teigneux, herbe du teigneux, oreille de géant, napolier, pignet, piquant, rapace, rhubarbe du diable, rhubarbe sauvage, rosesbardane, tabac du yâb, toques.
Germany: große klette, dollenkrautwurzel, kleberwurzel, klettendistelwurzel, klettenwurzel, kletten-wurzel, klissenwurzel, rossklettenwurzel.
Hungary: bojtorján.
Italy: bardana, lappa bardana, bardana maggiore.
Japan: gobō (牛蒡 or ゴボウ or ごぼ).
Latin: Bardanae Radix, Radix Arctii, Radix Lappae, Radix Personatae.
Lithuania: varnaléša.
Norway: borre.
Poland: lopian.
Portugal: bardana, orelha-de-gigante
Spain: bardana.
Russia: lapuch, lopuszniek, repiejnik.
Korea: u-eong (우엉)
Serbia: čičak, korijen čička (dried)
Taiwan: 牛蒡
The slender roots can reach 4 feet, and resemble a carrot in shape. Harvesting is typically done when they reach around two feet long. The roots are brown with white flesh that rapidly darkens with exposure to air. That oxidation can also stain fingers so latex gloves might be desired.
Preparation is commonly done using a bowl of acidified water to place pieces into as they get cut. This will help keep them light colored.

 

Burdock roots can be eaten raw or cooked. They have a mild, earthy flavor that is highly prized for rich soups and stews. The root of burdock is very commonly julienned or sliced thinly.

 

The immature peeled flower stalks and the young leaves can also be eaten fresh or cooked. Cultivars have been developed specifically for their leaves. The roots are also enjoyed pickled.

 

 

Burdock seeds were the inspiration for the invention of Velcro by George de Mestral in the 1940s.

 

 

Golden berry

Physalis peruviana

 

 

Golden berry (Physalis peruviana)
golden-berry

All plant parts of the golden-berry other than ripe fruit, including the unripe fruit, are considered to be poisonous. The fruit are harvested after their husks have fallen to the ground, but care is needed to be sure that they have turned golden-yellow and are fully ripe. Mature fruit will keep for several months.
The ripe fruit can be eaten fresh out of hand or used in salads and cooked dishes. They are also popular dipped in chocolate or candied or dried into golden “raisins”.

English: pichuberries (USA), Cape gooseberry (South Africa, UK), African ground cherry, Aztec berry, Barbados gooseberry, bladderberry, giant ground cherry, Goldenberry, golden berry,  golden Cape gooseberry, golden husk goldenberry, gooseberry tomato, ground cherry, ground-cherry, groundcherry, Husk Cherry, Inca berry,  love apple, Peruvian cherry, Peruvian groundcherry, Peruvian Ground Cherry, Peruvian cherry, Peruvian tomato, Poha, Poha Berry, strawberry tomato, wild gooseberry, winter cherry. (Not related to any true cherry or true gooseberry.)
French: amour en cage
Italian: alchechengi.
Spanish: uchuva (Colombia)

This plant is originally from Brazil but has become naturalized in Peru and Chile.
It has been cultivated in England and South Africa for more than 200 years. It has become distributed almost worldwide and is regarded to be an invasive pest in frost-free climates such as Hawaii.
It is cultivated in many of the African nations, also in Turkey, India, Australia, New Zealand, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Chile, and Peru.

It was reported to be potentially harmful to the heart health of men if they consume massive quantities of the fruit (>5 kg of fruit per kg of body weight). This does not appear to pose a significant risk factor as people always ingest far less.

 

goldenberry

goldenberry

goldenberry

goldenberry

goldenberry

golden-berry

goldenberry-IMGP7873

golden-berry

golden-berry

goldenberry

golden-berry

golden-berry

golden-berry

Plugging Logs

Plugging logs is nowhere near as efficient as growing mushrooms using spawn bags but it is within more people’s reach. Logs also have an advantage of lasting longer so make a nice complement to our bag production.

Holes are best drilled using a high-speed drill and a stop.

There are a couple of different tools for this.

Shiitake drill (10,000 rpm)

high-speed shiitake drill

high-speed shiitake drill

The Hitachi Koki DW12SA (S) is a specialty tool that was made by Hitachi for the shiitake industry.

It can sometimes be difficult to obtain outside of Japan but Japanese people can help obtain one by serving as a reshipper. A number of people do this as a commercial service. Acquiring it can cost about the same as the price of the drill once factoring in all of the postage. SOMETIMES companies exist which resell this item so it is worth checking if anyone is presently doing this.

 

High-speed modified drill

high-speed drill using angle grinder

high-speed drill using angle grinder

An angle grinder (10,000 rpm) can be obtained from any hardware store.

An angle adaptor and a drill bit with a stop can be obtained from Field and Forest that will turn it into a high-speed shiitake drill.

That same company also sells this as a complete set including the angle grinder.

This costs in the ball park of the price for the shiitake drill in Japan.

http://www.fieldforest.net/Cultivation-Tools/products/6/

 

Tools & supplies:

high-speed drill 

bit with stop sized for media choice (the shiitake drill has a built-in stop; drill bits that include stops are convenient). 12mm for sawdust media. 10.5mm for plugs.

inoculation tool for sawdust or a hammer for plugs.

bowl or container to hold sawdust media or plugs while working

wax dauber

wax pot

hot plate

eye protection

gloves

metal plant tags

writing implement

nails

hammer

 

Hericium yumthangense

Hericium yumthangense
[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. The description included molecular work.]

Abies densa (Sikkim fir) “attached to living host” Das et al. 2013 (Sikkim, India).

 

Hericium schestunovii

Hericium schestunovii
[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. Most authorities reject this name. I have not yet located any molecular work.]

Quercus pedunculata (a synonym for Q. robur) Nikolaeva 1961: 238. (USSR).

 

 

Hericium rajchenbergii

Hericium rajchenbergii
[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. The description included molecular work.]

Lithraea molleoides (aroeira-branca) “dead standing” Hallenberg et al. 2012 (Córdoba province, Colón Department, Argentina).

Lithraea sp. “fallen log” Hallenberg et al. 2012 (Córdoba province, Colón Department, Argentina)

 

References

Abrego et alia 2017. Fungal Ecology, 27: 168–174. Understanding the distribution of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech reserves from species-specific habitat models.

Afyon et alia 2004. Turkish Journal of Botany, 28: 351–360. Macrofungi of Sinop Province.

Afyon et alia 2009. Mycotaxon, 93: 319–322. A study of wood decaying macrofungi of the western Black Sea Region, Turkey.

ALA = Atlas of Living Australia 

Allen et alia 1996. Common Tree Diseases of British Columbia, 38–39. Heart rots: Yellow pitted rot. (Hericium abietis).

Arnolds 2001. In Moore et alia Fungal Conservation. Issues and Solutions. pages 64–80. The future of fungi in Europe: threats, conservation and management. (Digital version was in 2008.)

Astapenko 1990 [as Астапенко, В.В.]. Консортивные связи дереворазрушающих грибов в Среднем Приангарье [Symbiotic relations of wood-destroying fungi in the middle Angara river region]. Микология и Фитопатология [Mycology & Phytopathology] 24(4): 289–298. [Cited by Cybertruffle 2016; paper is presently unavailable to us.]

Astapenko & Kutafyeva 1990 [as Астапенко, В.В.; Кутафьева, Н.П.]. Консортивные связи макромицетов с видами рода Betula L. [Symbiotic relationships of larger fungi with species of Betula L.]. Микология и Фитопатология [Mycology & Phytopathology] 24(1): 3–9. [Cited by Cybertruffle 2016; paper is presently unavailable to us.] 

ATCC product information, data gleaned from within individual entries at http://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Fungi_and_Yeast/Fungi_and_Yeast_Alphanumeric.aspx [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018]

Atlas of Living Australia website. Hericium reported from Australia [https://biocache.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Hericium] and images [https://bie.ala.org.au/species/2ec3db20-d8b2-4ea8-b0e2-b38e7b09507f#gallery] [Links confirmed 4 Jan 2019]

Banker 1906. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club, 12(2): 99–192. A contribution to a revision of the North American Hydnaceae.

Berry 1969. USDA, Forest Service, Research paper NE-126, Decay in the Upland Oak Stands of Kentucky.

Berry & Beaton 1972. USDA, Forest Service, Report NE-242, Decay in Oak in the Central Hardwood Region.

Berry & Lombard 1978. Forest Service Research Paper NE-413, Basidiomycetes Associated with Decay of Living Oak Trees. 

Binion et alia 2008. Macrofungi associated with oaks of eastern North America. [Cited by Glaeser & Smith 2013 but unavailable to us.]

Bisko et alia 2016. IBK Mushroom Culture Collection.

Boddy et alia 2011. Fungal Ecology, 4: 163–173. Ecology of Hericium cirrhatum, H. coralloides, and H. erinaceus in the UK.

Bondartseva et alia 1998. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 33: 19—24. Aphyllophoroid fungi of old and primeval forests in the Kotavaara site of North Karelian biosphere reserve.

Bourdot & Galzin 1927. Hymènomycètes de France, pages 452—454. Dryodon.

Brambilla & Sutton 1969. Host Index of Species Deposited in the Mycological Herbarium (WINF/M) of the Forest Research Laboratory, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Bresadola 1906. I Funghi Mangerecci e velenosi dell Europa Media, vol. 2, 112–113.

Bulliard 1780. Herbier de la France, 1: page 304 & plate 34. HYDNE hérisson. HYDNUM erinaceus

Bulliard 1791. Histoire des champignons de la France, vol. 1, p. 304, plate 34, HYDNE hérisson. HYDNUM erinaceus.

Burdsall et alia 1978. Mycotaxon, 7(1): 1–9. Morphological and Mating System Studies of a New Taxon of Hericium (Aphyllophorales-Hericiaceae) from the Southern Appalachians. 

Burova 1968 [as Бурова, Л.Г.]. Макромицеты парцелл елово-широколиственных лесов Подмосковья (на примере липо-ельника зеленчуково-волосистого [Macromycetes of spruce-deciduous forests parcels in Moscow region (using as an example of lime-spruce forest with Galeobdolon and Carex pilosa)]. Миколог. [Cited by Cybertruffle 2016; book is presently unavailable to us.] 

BVN 2009. Bow Valley Naturalist Newsletter, Fall.

CABI Index of Fungi, at http://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/online-information-resources/index-of-fungi/ [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Chevallier 1826. Flore générale des environs de Paris, 1: 270–279. Hydnum.

Colenso 1889. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 21: 43-80. A description of some newly-discovered cryptogamic plants; being a further contribution towards the making known the botany of New Zealand. Pages 79–80: Hydnum novae-zealandiae. [Spelling can sometimes be found amended to novae-zelandiae.]

Cooke 1871. Handbook of British Fungi, vol. 1, page 297. Hydnum coralloides, erinaceus & caputmedusae.

Cybertruffle’s Robigalia online. Observations of fungi and their associated organisms, at http://www.cybertruffle.org.uk/robigalia/eng/index.htm [Link confirmed 19 Jan 2019.]

Das & Sharma 2009-2010. Kavaka, (37–38): 17–19. Hericium cirrhatum Pers Nikol. A new record to Indian mycoflora.

Das et alia 2011. Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 32(3): 285–293. A new species of Hericium from Sikkim Himalaya (India).

Das et alia 2013. IMA Fungus, 4(2): 359–369. Two new species of hydnoid-fungi from India.

DAVFP Collections Database Pacific Forestry Centre’s Forest Pathology Herbarium, at http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/herbarium [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Davidson et alia 1942. USDA Technical Bulletin 785, Fungi Causing Decay of Living Oaks in the Eastern United States and Their Cultural Identification.

Doğan & Öztürk 2006. Turkish Journal of Botany, 30: 193–207. Macrofungi and Their Distribution in Karaman Province, Turkey

Doğan et alia 2005. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 37(2): 459–485. A Checklist of Aphyllophorales of Turkey.

Doll 1979. Feddes Repertorium, 90(1–2): 103–120. Die Verbreitung der gestielten Stachelpilze sowie das Vorkommen von Hericium, Creolophus cirrhatus, Spongipellis pachyodon, und Sistotrema confluens in Mecklenburg.

Domański et alia 1960. Monographiae Botanicae, 10(2): 150-237. Mycoflore Bieszczady Occidentales (Wetlina 1958).

Domański et alia 1960. Monographiae Botanicae, volume 15. Mikoflora Bieszadów Zachodnich. II. (Ustrzyki Górne, 1960).

ECCF (European Council for Conservation of Fungi) 2001. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. T-PVS 34: page 21. Datasheets of threatened mushrooms of Europe, candidates for listing in Appendix I of the Convention. 

Ginns 1984. Mycotaxon, 20(1): 39–43. Hericium coralloides N. Amer. auct. H. americanum, and the European H. alpestre and H. coralloides.

Ginns 1985. Canadian Journal of Botany, 63(9): 1551–1563. Hericium in North America, cultural characteristics and mating behavior.

Gizhytska 1929 [as Гіжицька, З.К.]. Матеріяли до мікофльори України. Вісник Київського Ботанічного саду [Bulletin of the Kiev Botanic Garden] 10: 4–41. [Cited by Cybertruffle 2016; paper is presently unavailable to us.]

Glaeser & Smith 2010. Western Arborist, 32–46. Decay fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists.

Glaeser & Smith 2013. Western Arborist, 40–51. Decay fungi of riparian trees in the Southwestern U.S.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) at http://www.gbif.org.tw) [Link confirmed 25 January 2019.]

Global Catalogue of Microorganisms, at http://gcm.wfcc.info [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Global Fungal Red List Initiative, at http://iucn.ekoo.se/iucn/species_view/120231 [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018]

Gray 1821. A Natural Arrangement of British plants, page 651: erinaceus; page 652: coralloides.

Groves 1981. Champignons comestibles et vénéneux du Canada.

Gulden & Stordal 1973. Blyttia, 31: 103–127. Om stilkete och kjukeformele piggsopper i Norge. [Cited by Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988 but unavailable to us.]

Hallenberg 1983. Mycotaxon, 18(1): 181–189. Hericium coralloides and H. alpestre (Basidiomycetes) in Europe.

Hallenberg et alia 2012. Mycological Progress, 12(2): 413–420. Species complexes in Hericium (Russulales, Agaricomycota) and a new species —Hericium rajchenbergii — from southern South America.

Haller 1768. Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae, vol. 3, page 148. ECHINUS ramosus, aculeis parallelis.

Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003. Hericium Tooth Fungi.

Hansen & Vesterholt 2002. Rødlistede svampe i Storstrøms Amt 2001. Page 135: Creolophus cirrhatus; 138: Hericium erinaceum; 174: Hericium coralloides.

Harrison 1961. The Stipitate Hydnums of Nova Scotia.

Harrison 1973. Michigan Botanist, 12: 177–194. The Genus Hericium in North America.

Harrison 1984. Mycologia, 76: 1121–1123. Creolophus in North America.

Henderson 1981. Trial field key to TOOTHED FUNGI in the Pacific Northwest. (Pacific Northwest Key Council), at http://www.svims.ca [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Hibbett et alia 2000. Nature, 407: 506–508. Evolutionary instability of ectomycorrhizal symbioses in basidiomycetes.

Horst 2013. Westcott’s Plant Disease Handbook, pages 489–490. Hericium erinaceus.

Hubregtse 2018. Fungi in Australia. Part 4. Basidiomycota, Agaricomycotina – II, pages 226—227 & Part 9. Photographic guide to non-gilled fungi, page 20. Hericium coralloides.

Hyams 1900. North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts Bulletin, 177: 27–77. Edible mushrooms of North Carolina.

Index Species Fungorum, at http://www.speciesfungorum.org [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018]

Jussieu ex Barrelier 1714. Plantae per Galliam Hispaniam et Italiam observatae iconibus aeneis exhibitae, page 118, fig. 1257. Fungus ramos. Abietin niveus

Karadelev 1993. Fungi Macedonici, I. Contribution to the knowledge of wood-destroying fungi in the Republic of Macedonia. 

Karun & Sridhar 2016. Studies in Fungi, 1(1): 135–141. Two new records of hydnoid fungi from the Western Ghats of India.

Kaya 2009. Turkish Journal of Botany, 33: 429–437. Macrofungi of Huzurlu high plateau (Gaziantep-Turkey).

Keizer 2008. De soorten van het leefgebiedenbeleid, 55–57, (Chapter 14) Echte Pruikzwam Hericium Erinaceum (Bull. ; Fr.) Pers.

Kew Gardens, at http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/hericium-erinaceus-bearded-tooth [Link was 404 on 9 Dec 2018]

Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988. Karstenia, 27: 43–70. Hydnaceous fungi of the Hericiaceae, Auriscalpiaceae and Climacodontaceae in northwestern Europe.

Kreisel 1987. Pilzflora der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Basidiomycetes (Gallert-, Hut- und Bauchpilze). [Cited by Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988 but thusfar has been unavailable.]

Kunca & Čiliak 2015. Czech Mycology, 67(1): 95–118. Abstracts of the International Symposium Fungi of Central European Old-Growth Forests, page 107. Ecology, incidence and indication value of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia and the Western Carpathians.

Kunca & Čiliak 2017. Data in Brief, 12: 156–160. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia.

Kunca & Čiliak 2017. Fungal Ecology, 27(B): 189–192. Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia.

Kuo. Michael Kuo’s Mushroom Expert website: http://www.mushroomexpert.com [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018]

Lacheva 2014. International Journal of Microbiology and Mycology, 2(3): 37–48. A case study on wood decaying macrofungi in the Southwestern slopes of Vasilyovska Mountain, Forebalkan, Bulgaria.

Lai K (2012). The National Checklist of Taiwan. Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF). (http://taibnet.sinica.edu.tw) [Link confirmed 25 January 2019.]

Larsson & Larsson 2003. Mycologia, 95(6): 1037–1065. Phylogenetic relationships of russuloid basidiomycetes with emphasis on aphyllophoralean taxa.

Letellier 1826. Histoire Et Description Des Champignons.  : 112–113: Hericium caput medusae; 113–114: Hericium erinaceus; 114–115: Hericium coralloides. 

Lisiewska 2006. Acta Mycologica, 41(2): 241–252. Endangered macrofungi of selected nature reserves in Wielkopolska.

Maas Geesteranus 1959. Persoonia, 1(1): 115–147. The stipitate Hydnums of the Netherlands — IV. 

Massee 1892. British Fungus Flora, vol. 1. Pages 156–157: Hericium coralloides; 157: Hericium erinaceum; 157: Hericium caput-medusae.

Merino Alcántara 2011. Micobotánica Jaén, 4 pages. Hericium alpestre. at http://www.micobotanicajaen.com/Revista/Articulos/DMerinoA/Aportaciones023/Hericium%20alpestre.pdf [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018]

Michel 2007. Contribution à la connaissance de la fonge lignicole du site de Saint-Daumas, page 24.

Micheli 1729. Nova plantarum genera juxta Tournafortii methodum disposita, page 122. Agaricum esculentum, album, cespitosum, multifidum & denticulatum, denticulis asperis.

Miller 1935. Mycologia, 27(4): 357–373. The Hydnaceae of Iowa. IV. The Genera Steccherinum, Auriscalpium, Hericium, Dentinum and Calodon.

Miller et alia 2006. Mycologia, 98(6): 960–970. Perspectives in the new Russulales.

Mir et alia 2017. Micobotánica-Jaén, 12(2): ONLINE. Aportación al Catálogo Micológico de las Illes Balears. Menorca, III. See at http://www.micobotanicajaen.com/Revista/Articulos/JLMelis/MenorcaIII/APORTACION%20AL%20CATALOGO%20MICOLOGICO%20III%20v2r.pdf [Link confirmed 19 dec. 2018.]

Molina et alia 1993. USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-309. Biology, Ecology, and Social Aspects of Wild Edible Mushrooms in the Forests of the Pacific Northwest: A Preface to Managing Commercial Harvest.

Monica 2014. http://www.monicanetwork.dxnitaly.com [Link was 404 on 9 Dec 2018.] [also www.retestatic.it/download.php?f=307416.pdf (Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.)]

Morel Mushroom Hunting Club (i.e. Chris Matherly), at www.morelmushroomhunting.com/herricium_coralloides_var_rosea.htm [Link was 404 on 9 Dec 2018.] [As herricium coralloides var. rosea.]

Mori et alia 2008. Phytotherapy Research, 23(3): 367–372. Improving Effects of the Mushroom Yamabushitake, Hericium erinaceus, on Mild Cognitive Impairment; A Double blind Placebo controlled Clinical Trial.
And also in
Mori et alia 2008. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 31 (9): 1727–1732. Nerve Growth Factor Inducing Activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 Human Astrocytoma Cells.

Mycobank at http://www.mycobank.org/name/Hericium%20erinaceum&Lang=Eng) [Link confirmed 19 Dec. 2018.] 

Mycoweb, at http://www.mykoweb.com [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Nakasone 1996. in McMinn et alia USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report, GTR-SE94, Biodiversity and Coarse woody Debris in Southern Forests. pages 35–42: Diversity of Lignicolous Basidiomycetes in Coarse Woody Debris.

Nanagulian & Senn-Irlet 2002. Some Dates [sic] About Distribution and Conservation of Threatened Mushrooms in Armenia.

Nikolajeva 1961. Flora plantarum cryptogamarum URSS. Fungi. Familia Hydnaceae, 6(2): 1–432.  Page 238: Hericium schestunovii. [cited by many references; book is not presently available to us.]

Nuß 1973. Westfälische Pilzbriefe, 9: 130–134. Über die Verbreitung des Alpen-Stachelbartes (Hericium coralloides) in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

Oudemans 1919–1924. Enumeratio systematica Fungorum.

Ostry et alia 2011. USDA, Forest Service. GTR-79. Field Guide to Common Macrofungi in Eastern Forests and Their Ecosystem Functions.

Otani 1957. Journal of Japanese Botany [Shokubutsu Kenkyu Zasshi], 32(10): 303–306. On a new species of Hericium found in Japan.

Park et alia 2014. Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 14(4): 816–821. Molecular Identification of Asian Isolates of Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceum, by Phylogenetic Analysis of Nuclear ITS rDNA. 

Paulet 1793. Traite des champignons, vol. 2, pages 424–428. 

Pegler 2003. Mycologist, 17(3): 120–121. Useful fungi of the world: the monkey head fungus.

Persoon 1794. (In Roemer’s) Neues Magazin für die Botanik, pages 151 & 153, page 153: erinaceus.

Persoon 1818. Traite sur les Champignons Comestibles. (Typo erinaceum appears on page 251). 

Persoon 1797. Commentatio de Fungis Clavaeformibus, page 27: erinaceus.

Persoon 1801. Synopsis Methodica Fungorum, page 560: erinaceus.

Persoon 1825. Mycologia Europaea, volume 2, page 153: erinaceus.

Rastetter 1983. Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, 2: 161–188. Fünfter Beitrag zur Pilzflora des Oberelsaß.

Roger’s mushrooms, at http://www.rogersmushrooms.com [Server not responding in Nov. 2018 and Jan. 2019. Apparently now exists as a phone app.]

Russian Red Book Plants; Красная Книга России, at http://biodat.ru/db/rbp/rb.php?src=1&vid=527 [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Safonov 1999 [as Сафонов, М.А.]. Трутовые грибы (Polyporaceae s.lato) лесов Оренбургской области [Polyporous fungi (Polyporaceae s. lato) from forests of Orenburg oblast]. Микология и Фитопатология [Mycology & Phytopathology] 33(2): 75–80. [Cited by Cybertruffle 2016; paper is presently unavailable to us.] 

Safonov 2014. European Researcher, 83(9-2): 1671–1676. Wood-destroying Basidiomycetes found on the elder woods in the South Urals (Orenburg Oblast, Russia).

Sikora & Neubauer 2015. Chrońmy Przyrodę Ojczystą, 71(5): 368–379. Nowe stanowiska i występowanie soplówki jeżowatej. Hericium erinaceus w Polsce.

Siller et alia 2005. Studia Botanica Hungarica, 36: 131–163. Hungarian Distribution of the Legally Protected Macrofungi Species.

Sokół et alia 2016. Acta Mycology, 50(2): article 1069. 18-pages. Biology, cultivation and medicinal functions of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum.

Stalpers 1992. Persoonia, 14(4): 537–541. Albatrellus and the Hericiaceae.

Stalpers 1996. Studies in Mycology, 40. The Aphyllophoraceous fungi. — II. Keys to the species of the Hericiales.

Stasińska 1999. Acta Mycologica, 34(1): 125–168. Macromycetes in forest communities of the Insko Landscape Park (NW Poland).

Sterbeeck 1675. Theatrum Fungorum oft Tooneel der Campernoelien, pages 254-255. [as = Cornu cervi calcinatum.]

Stevenson 1886. British Fungi, vol. 2. 239–240: Hericium coralloides; 240: Hericium erinaceum;  240: Hericium caput-medusae.

Sultana & Qreshi 2007. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39 (7): 2629–2649. Check List of Basidiomycetes (Aphyllo. and Phragmo.) of Kaghan Valley-11.

Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006. A Field Guide to Insects and Diseases of California Oaks, (USDA PSW GTR-197), pp. 99–101. Hedgehog mushroom, Hericium erinaceus f. erinaceus.

Tanchaud 2011. Hericium cirrhatum, at www.mycocharentes.fr/pdf1/82%20115%201%20.pdf [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Tanchaud 2015. Hericium clathroides, at https://www.mycocharentes.fr/pdf1/1747.pdf [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Tanchaud 2018. Hericium cirrhatum, at https://www.mycocharentes.fr/pdf1/2206.pdf [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Teng 1996. Fungi of China. [Cited by Cybertruffle 2016; book is presently unavailable to us.]

Thind & Khara 1975. Indian Phytopathology, 28: 57–65. The Hydnaceae of the North Western Himalayas–II. [Cited by Karun & Sridhar 2016; paper was unavailable.]

Thongbai et alia 2015. Mycological Progress, 14:91 (23 pages) Review: Hericium erinaceus, an amazing medicinal mushroom.

Tortič 1998. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 33: 139—146. An attempt to a list of indicator fungi (Aphyllophorales) for old forests of beech and fir in former Yugoslavia.

Trattinnick 1805. Fungi Austriaci, 191–196. XXV. Hydnum erinaceus Bull.

Trout 2004–2015. “Local observation” was for environs of Boonville, Philo & Yorkville, in Anderson Valley, Mendocino County, California.

Turland et alie (eds.) 2018: International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017. Regnum Vegetabile 159. 

Urban 2015. Czech Mycology, 67(1): 95–118. Abstracts of the International Symposium Fungi of Central European Old-Growth Forests, page 117. Substrate specificity does matter — macrofungal succession on coarse woody debris in an old-growth oak forest.

Van Hook 1922. Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science, 1921: 143–148. Indiana Fungi — VI.

pastedGraphic.pngVarstvo gozdov / Boletus informaticus, at http://www.zdravgozd.si [Link confirmed 19 Dec 2018.]

Wald et alia 2004. Mycological Research, 108(12): 1447–1457. Interspecific interactions between the rare tooth fungi, Creolophus cirrhatus, Hericium erinaceus and H. coralloides, and other wood decay species in agar and wood.

Yurchenko 2002. Mycena, 2(1): 31–68. Non-poroid aphyllophoraceous fungi proposed to the third edition of the Red Data Book of Belarus. [Hericium coralloides: pages 47—50.]

Zutshi & Gupta 2013. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 51: 361–363. Occurrence and characterization of Hericium coralloides: a rare wild edible mushroom from Doda region of J & K, India. [Cited by Karun & Sridhar 2016; paper was unavailable. Could only access its abstract.]

Acknowledgements

First thanks should go to every author and collector who I have cited above as they did the actual work upon which this assemblage was based. 

I want to also thank a host of helpful information services for helping me obtain reference materials. Actual databases are listed in the references above. However, a growing number of organizations exist with the intentions of digitizing everything possible and making knowledge more readily available. In alphabetical order: Archive.org, Biblioteca digital del Real Jardín Botanico CSIC (Madrid), Biodiversity Heritage Project, MOBOT’s Botanicus, the Canadian Forest Service, Citationsy, Galica at the Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Google, Hathitrust, and Alexandra Elbakyan’s Sci-Hub.

Hericium ptychogasteroides

Hericium ptychogasteroides
[Given as accepted species in Index Species Fungorum. Most authorities reject this name. Molecular work not located.]

“? Quercus” “on dead wood” CABI Index of Fungi 2: 311 citing Nikolaeva 1956 Journal of Botany U.S.S.R., 41: 999.

Hericium fimbriatum

Hericium fimbriatum
[Given as an accepted species in Index Species Fungorum but most authorities reject. Molecular work not located.]

Considering Banker’s description, the very un-Hericium-like spores, plus his comparison of this to H. crocea (= Sarcodontia crocea); Meruliaceae), the acceptance of this as a valid name seems worth questioning.

ISF also mentions Saccardo 1912 Sylloge Fungorum 21: 373 as a corroborating reference but Saccardo is essentially just repeating Banker 1906 in Latin.

“On a decaying stump of some hard wood, between the bark and the wood.” Banker 1906 (Penn-sylvania, USA).

 

Hericium erinaceum ssp. erinaceo-abietis

Hericium erinaceum ssp. erinaceo-abietis
[Not an accepted name.]

Quercus sp.  Live tree. Burdsall et al. 1978; also in Ginns 1985 (Virginia, USA).

 

Both the description and photograph of this suggests it is probably just a youngish H. americanum.

Hericium erinaceum

This name, “Hericium erinaceum”, is a misspelling.

Many culture banks, herbarium data-bases, the National Checklist of Taiwan, the Atlas of Living Australia, a number of patents, assorted publications in analytical, medical &/or nutritional research and even a few mycologists employ the name “Hericium erinaceum (Bull. : Fr.) Pers.” Hericium erinaceum has even appeared in some papers alongside H. erinaceus. Sometimes it is even given as the accepted name. It is however an error that now comprises a substantial minority of the locatable instances of use.

The name being misspelled “erinaceum” originated in the literature as a typo appearing in Persoon’s 1818 Traite sur les Champignons Comestibles (on page 251).  

Persoon had earlier employed the spelling erinaceus in 1794 (in Roemer’s Neues Magazin für die Botanik, page 153); also in 1797 (Commentatio de Fungis Clavaeformibus, page 27), and in 1801 (Synopsis Methodica Fungorum, page 560). And he did so again later, in 1825 (Mycologia Europaea, volume 2, page 153). 

1818 was the only instance in any of Persoon’s works using the spelling erinaceum. Due to his respected stature as an authority and the nature of the work that it appeared within, this error has achieved some lasting power through its retellings.

His entry itself actually supports the spelling erinaceum having been made in error. In his 1818 book, all of the authorities included by Persoon had spelled it erinaceus. Persoon had cited Bulliard 1797 (see page 304 and plate 34), Paulet 1793 (see plate CXCIII) and Trattinnick 1805 (see page 191). Persoon 1818 was the first to make the error but sadly this spelling was picked up by a minor portion of active authors from that time period onward. 

Due to the error either being missed or not questioned by a minor number of prominent workers across several disciplines, today a Google search will reveal that erinaceus : erinaceum are currently both in use at a 28:1 ratio, with respectively 948,000 vs 33,800 results. In some of the latter instances both names are presented to be synonyms but “erinaceum” is actually quite easy to find used in the analytical and pharmacological literature. The GBIF database shows erinaceum with 39 entries and erinaceus with 1559. It is especially common in Asian publications and databases; possibly due to databases such as the Lai 2012, Atlas of Living Australia and Cybertruffle presenting it as the accepted name for the species.

In some instances erinaceum and erinaceus have even been evaluated in studies as if they were separate taxa. Serendipitously, Park et alia 2014 compared specimens bearing both names in a molecular study and reported differences between Asian erinaceum and US erinaceus.

More work is clearly in order but the application of Latin binomials does have some clearly defined rules.

Despite that there is a peculiar hurdle in this instance. The origin of the problem arose from a leading authority, Persoon, putting a misspelling into print and this error then being repeated by a few other respected authorities. That is an unfortunate combination that easily creates long-lasting perpetuations which are often highly resistant to correction.

Competent mycologists are included among those who have used, and in a few cases still use, the name. While Cooke 1871 used erinaceus, his successors, Stevenson 1886 and Massee 1892 changed it to erinaceum. In 1978, Burdsall et alia (Mycotaxon, 7(1): 1–9) also attempted to describe a mushroom they encountered as Hericium erinaceum ssp. erinaceo-abietis.

Burdsall commented that Harrison 1973 (Michigan Botanist, 12: 177–194) had recognized Hericium erinaceum as one of the accepted Hericium species. Harrison had actually used the spelling erinaceus and never mentioned erinaceum. 

Henderson 1981 helpfully made the comment that “”hedgehog” has the masculine ending “-us” even though Hericium is neuter, because “erinaceus” is a noun rather than an adjective.” 

Erinaceus europaeus is the European hedgehog. In Latin, the nominative form of the noun is erinaceus and erinaceum is the accusative form.

Mycobank accordingly notes erinaceum to be an orthographic variant (i.e. a name with a spelling that entered the literature as a typo or other mistake). 

Fortunately the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants –currently the Shenzhen Code 2018; Turland et alia (eds.)– includes some clear and simple provisions for what taxonomy is supposed to do with such orthographic variants:

61.1. Only one orthographical variant of any one name is treated as validly published: the form that appears in the original publication […]
[See the Code for the acceptable exceptions to this rule.]

61.4. The orthographical variants of a name are to be corrected to the validly published form of that name. Whenever such a variant appears in a publication, it is to be treated as if it appeared in its corrected form.

If only reality worked so simply…

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus
[Commonly accepted name.]
See comments on H. erinaceum.

Acer macrophyllum

Acer spp.

Aesculus sp.

Ailanthus altissima

Ailanthus glandulosa [now = Ailanthus altissima]

Albizia julibrissin

Betula sp.

Carpinus betulus

Carya spp.

Castanea sativa

Castanopsis cuspidata

Eucalyptus sp.

Fagus grandifolia

Fagus spp.

Fagus sylvatica

Juglans sp.

Liquidambar styraciflua

Magnoliopsidae ord. indet.

Malus sp.

Notholithocarpus densifolia

Platanus occidentalis

Platanus racemosa

Platanus spp.

Quercus agrifolia

Quercus alba

Quercus cerris

Quercus chrysolepis

Quercus coccinea

Quercus crispula 

Quercus garryana

Quercus kelloggii

Quercus leucotrichophora 

Quercus lobata

Quercus petraea

Quercus phellos

Quercus prinus

Quercus pubescens

Quercus robur (now = Quercus pedunculata) 

Quercus rubra

Quercus spp.

Quercus velutina

Quercus wislizeni

Robinia pseudoacacia

Robinia spp.

Sorbus sp. 

Ulmus carpinifolia

Acer macrophyllum (broadleaf maple) DAVFP (BC, Canada).

Acer spp. Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); in Henderson 1981; and Horst 2013.

Aesculus sp. Doll 1979 “once” (Mecklenburg, Germany).

Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven) On live trunk in urban center. Mir et alia 2017 (Balearic Island, Menorca).

Ailanthus glandulosa Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France). 

Albizia julibrissin (silk tree) “annually pruned […] in urban areas.” Global Fungal Red List; ; Cybertruffle’s Robigalia mentions a collection of “Hericium sp.” from this host (Ukraine).

Betula spp. (birch) Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); Harrison 1961 (Nova Scotia).

Carpinus betulus (common hornbeam) On dead stump. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).

Carya sp. (hickory) “on a dead log” in Banker 1906 (as Hicoria).

Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) in crevices, wounds and hollows Bresadola 1906 (Europe).

Castanopsis cuspidata (Japanese chinquapin or shiia) Otani 1957.

Eucalyptus sp. was mentioned in Harrison 1973 (California, USA). [Eucalyptus successfully also used in Australian cultivation.]

Fagus grandifolia (American beech) On live tree. Ginns 1985 (Pennsylvania, USA). 

Fagus sp. (beech) “stump” “fallen beech trunk” Lacheva 2014 (Bulgaria); Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); Ginns 1985 (UK); and “collected from stumps” Afyon et alia 2009 (Sinop, Boyabat, Turkey); one of the main host trees Doll 1979 (Mecklenburg, Germany); Stasińska 1999 (NW Poland in mountains not low areas); Harrison alluded it to only being true in earlier times due to a loss of beech forests. Harrison 1961 (Nova Scotia).

Fagus sylvatica (European beech) ATCC and Bisko et alia 2016 (the Netherlands); Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); on living and dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2015 (Poland, Czech Repubic, Hungary & Austria); on live and dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2015 & 2017 (Slovakia); on live and dead. Sikora & Neubauer 2015 (Poland).

Juglans sp. (walnut) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing Teng 1996:314. (1 record from China); Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); also in Monica 2014 . Monica’s ID needs to be questioned: the included photo appears to be H. laciniatum/coralloides (Italy); also in Doll 1979 citing Bourdot & Galzin 1927.

Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum) Nakasone 1996 (Southern USA). It seems possible that this was in reference to Hericium americanum?

Magnoliopsidae ord. indet. Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing Teng 1996:314. (12 records from China). 

Malus sp. Doll 1979 citing Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France).

Notholithocarpus (Lithocarpus) densifolia (tan-oak) On living trees; less common on fallen trunks. Local observation by Trout (Mendocino Co, California, USA).

Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore).

Platanus racemosa (California sycamore)
Oudemans (1919 – 1924).

Platanus sp. was also mentioned in Harrison 1973.

Quercus sp. (oak) Ginns 1985 (Maryland, USA); on living and dead: Sikora & Neubauer 2015 (Poland); on dead oak: Rastetter 1983 (Germany); Doll 1979: one of the main host trees (Mecklenburg, Germany).

Quercus agrifolia (coast live oak) Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).

Quercus alba (white oak) ATCC (New Jersey); also Ginns 1985 (New Jersey, Pennsylvania, USA), Berry 1969 (Kentucky), & Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA).

Quercus cerris (turkey oak) Kew Gardens (England); on living and on dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).

Quercus chrysolepis (canyon live oak) Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).

Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak) Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA).

Quercus crispula (mizu-nara) (now Q. mongolica) “collected from a trunk of oak tree” Global Catalogue of Microorganisms (Japan) [as H. erinaceum].

Quercus garryana (garry oak) DAVFP (BC, Canada) Two accessions; one with ID question.

Quercus kelloggii (California black oak) Live tree; from branch scar. Local observation by Trout. (Philo, Mendocino County, California, USA); also in Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).

Quercus leucotrichophora (banj oak) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia  (India) [as = Q. incana].

Quercus lobata (valley oak) Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).

Quercus petraea (sessile oak) On living weakened and dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2015 & 2017 (Slovakia); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia  (Ukraine).

Quercus phellos (willow oak) ATCC.

Quercus prinus (chestnut oak) Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA).

Quercus pubescens (downy oak) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia  (Ukraine).

Quercus robur (English oak) Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988 (Europe); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia  cited Gizhytska 1929 (Ukraine).

Quercus rubra (red oak) ATCC and also Ginns 1985 and also Stalpers 1992 (Virginia, USA).

Quercus spp. Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); also given in Persoon 1794: 153; “sur les grosses branches mortes du chêne” [on large dead branches of oak] Chevalier 1826:275 (France); on living and dead. “on old oaks” Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); Kunca & Čiliak 2015 (Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary & Austria); & also Kunca & Čiliak 2015 & 2017 (Slovakia).

Quercus velutina (eastern black oak) Ginns 1985 (Pennsylvania, USA); also Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA) reporting a prevalence of Black oak > white oak >> Scarlet oak > Chestnut oak.

Quercus wislizeni (interior live oak) Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).

Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) On dead stump. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).

Robinia sp. (locust) on injured living tree was mentioned in Banker 1906 (USA); (also given in Keizer 2008).

Sorbus sp. Doll 1979 citing Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France).

Ulmus carpinifolia (smoothleaf elm) (Now = U. minor) On dead log Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).

“On alive trunks of Quercus and Fagus” 1000-1400m. Nanagulyan & Senn-Irlet 2002 (Armenia).

“large stems of beech, both living and dead” Hansen & Veesterholt 2002 (Denmark). 

“nait des cicatrices des vieux chênes” (from scars of old oaks) Bulliard 1780.

“[…] in the scars of old oaks” Letellier 1826.

“pas rare sur vieux chênes; hêtre, noyer, Ailanthus glandulosa.” “not rare on old oaks; beech, walnut, Ailanthus glandulosa.” Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France).

On oak and Robinia (living trees) “loofbomen (eik, Robinia)” Keizer 2008 (Netherlands).

“living oak and beech” Hallenberg 1983 (C & S Europe; reaching as far north as S Sweden).

“beech (77%) or oak Quercus sp. (23%)” “At 71% of sites, fruiting bodies were found on dead wood, either on lying or standing trunks, and 29% − on living trees.” Sikora & Neubauer 2015 (Poland)

“High up on wounds and stubs on living trees; fallen large diam. wood.” Boddy et alia 2011 (UK).

“On old oaks” Gray 1821:651 (UK) [as = Steccherinum quercinum].

“On trunks, oaks, beech, &c.” Massee 1892 and Stevenson 1886 (UK). Cooke 1871 was almost the same but gave as “United States.”

“mainly in the wounds of old standing living trees. Most often Fagus sylvatica (beech), occasionally Quercus robur (oak). […] on cut end of felled trees and on trunks of fallen trees” Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK).

“beech wood” Wald et alia 2004 (UK).

“growing from scars on living deciduous trees, especially beech” Images on beech (UK) and on oak (USA) Roger’s mushrooms [http://www.rogersmushrooms.com/gallery/DisplayBlock~bid~6107~gid~~source~gallerydefault.asp] 

“on living beech trees” Afyon et alia 2004 (Sinop, Boyabat, Turkey).

Oak, “fur les chênes” Paulet 1793:424 and 427 (France).

“Quercia, Faggio, Noce e di altre piante decidue. “ (i.e. “Oak, Beech, Walnut [Juglans] & other deciduous species”) Monica 2014 (Italy) Photo appears to be of H. laciniatum/coralloides. 

“invariably grows out of the knotholes or wounds of the tree, which may be walnut, oak, elm, or beech.” “ranging from rare in central Europe to fairly common in southern England.” Pegler 2003.

“Growing as a weak parasite on trunks and thick branches of old, standing deciduous trees, mainly Quercus and Fagus, often in old wounds, often high above the ground and fruiting many years on the same tree. It occurs in old, deciduous forests but also on planted trees in parks and along roadsides.” ECCF 2001 (“Widespread in Europe”).

‘very rare in northern Europe, and has been found frequently only in Denmark.”

Classified as endangered in Sweden and in Poland; “usually grows on Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur, but also occurs on Betula, Juglans, Malus and Sorbus.” 

“In Central Europe further host trees are known.” 

“A characteristic site is a knothole or wound on a standing, living tree.” 

Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988.

“undisturbed beech [Fagus] and oak [Quercus] forests with high air humidity, in the cracks and cavities of living, old or dead trunks, fallen logs and stumps.” Siller et alia 2005 (Hungary).

“it grows on the trunks of leafy trees, especially on chestnut, mulberry, plum etc. between crevices, scars or cavities.” Bresadola 1906 (Europe).

“Saprobic and parasitic […] fruiting from the wounds of living hardwoods (especially oaks)” Kuo website.

“most commonly emerging from wounds in living oaks, often from holes made by woodpeckers; occasionally it is found on locusts or on beeches; sometimes it is found on dead logs. Of fifteen specimens whose habitat was given, ten were on injured living trees; of these seven were Quercus, two Robinia, and one Fagus; the remaining five plants grew on dead logs, one on Quercus, one on Hicoria [Carya], and the others unknown” “…prefers living oaks” Banker 1906.

“On living oak, locust or beech, also occasionally on dead trees” Banker 1906 (USA and Mexico).

“associated with a heart rot of oaks, occasionally on other frondose species, and is usually found growing from knotholes or cracks on living trees. It is recorded on Fagus in a number of states, on Acer spp. (Washington), Eucalyptus (California) and Platanus (Virginia).” Harrison 1972.

“Solitary from branch scars of living hardwoods or on fallen logs;” Mycoweb (California).

“Causes a white pocket rot of living trees, and is associated with wounds.” Glaeser & Smith 2010.

“grows only on deciduous wood, oak along Pacific Coast, in this area on maple.” Henderson 1981.

Bisko et alia 2016 listed culture collections from Nevada, China, Netherlands & Taiwan.

“grows on both living and dead broadleaf trees” Mori et alia 2008 (Japan & China).

“old tree stump” for both of the finds reported in the Atlas of Australia (VIC, Australia)