Hericium coralloides

Hericium coralloides

 [Commonly accepted name but not all users have been in agreement with one another as to what they mean by it. Some workers now drop it.]

Abies alba 

Abies spp.

Acacia dealbata 

Acacia melanoxylon 

Acacia spp. 

Acer platanoides

Acer spp.

Agathis australis 

Alnus glutinosa 

Alnus incana

Alnus spp.

Archontophoenix cunninghamii

Argyrodendron actinophyllum

Beilschmiedia tawa

Betula alba

Betula papyrifera

Betula pendula

Betula spp.

Carpinus betulus 

Carpinus spp.

Carya spp.

Corylus sp.

Dacrydium cupressinum 

Eucalyptus campanulata

Eucalyptus regnans

Eucalyptus spp.

Fagus orientalis

Fagus spp.

Fagus sylvatica

Fuscospora fusca [formerly Nothofagus fusca]

Fraxinus excelsior

Fraxinus spp. 

Juglans sp.

Knightia excelsa

Metrosideros robusta 

Morus spp.

Nothofagus cunninghamii [now = Lophozonia cunninghamii ]

Nothofagus menziesii [now = Lophozonia menziesii]

Nothofagus solandri [now = Fuscospora solandri]

A Nothofagus species. Either N. solandri or N. truncata [the latter now = Fuscospora truncata]

Nothofagus spp.

Notholithocarpus densifolia 

Nyssa sylvatica

Picea abies

Picea glauca

Picea spp. 

Pinus sylvestris 

Populus balsamifera

Populus spp.

Populus tacamahaca

Populus tremula

Populus tremuloides

Populus trichocarpa

Pyrus sp.

Quercus cerris

Quercus coccifera

Quercus dilata

Quercus garryana

Quercus leucotrichophora 

Quercus pubescens

Quercus robur [now = Quercus pedunculata]

Salix spp.

Sloanea woollsii

Sophora japonica [now = Styphnolobium japonicum]

Sorbus aucuparia

Tilia cordata

Tilia spp.

Tsuga heterophylla

Ulmus spp.

Weinmannia racemosa 

Also reported to be found growing on:

  an unidentified tree-fern frond (VIC)

  an unidentified podocarp (NZ)

  a Ganoderma fruiting body (NZ) (?)

N.B. (with caution)

the claims for:

  Deciduous trees only.

  Conifers only.

“exclusively on deciduous wood” Harrison 1973 (as H. ramosum).

“grows only on deciduous wood, usually poplar.” Henderson 1981. 

in northwestern Europe […] grows almost exclusively on hardwoods.” Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988.

Exclusively on softwood. Maas Geesteranus 1959.

In the list that follows, hardwoods will be seen to predominate. Softer wood species will also be noticed. 

Hericium coralloides reported as occurring on Abies, Picea, Tsuga and other softwoods merit a closer examination to establish if these were  misidentifications or simply less common occurrences. 

Abies alba (silver fir) Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus); Global Catalogue of Microorganisms (Czech Republic & Yugoslavia). [Ed.: was this H. alpestre?]

Abies sp. (fir) ATCC (Yugoslavia). [Ed.: was this H. alpestre?]; Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing Teng 1996 (China); Jussieu ex Barrelier 1714:118 (as Fungus ramosus] and also Micheli 1720:122 (Italy).

Acacia dealbata (silver wattle) “dead log” ALA (Victoria, Australia).

Acacia melanoxylon (blackwood) “Blackwood stump, with leaves growing from the stump” ALA (Tasmania, Australia); “Fern gully […] on standing dead”, “a gully […] inhabiting a rotten, fallen blackwood”, “in a fissure in trunk”, “on stump” ALA (Victoria, Australia).

Acacia spp. (wattles) “fallen wattle tree” ALA (Tasmania, Australia); “fallen log (hanging from)” ALA (New Zealand); “On rotting Acacia log” ALA (Victoria, Australia).

Acer platanoides (Norway maple) Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus). 

Acer sp. (maple) or Fagus sp. (beech) Ginns 1984 (Virginia).

Agathis australis (kauri) “fallen log” This is a conifer. ALA (6 finds from New Zealand: all were submitted as Hericium sp.)

Alnus glutinosa (common alder) “fallen wood” Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus).

Alnus incana (grey alder) Safonov 2014 (Orenburg Oblast, Russia).

Alnus sp. (alder) was mentioned as a host in Harrison 1973 (Oregon).

Archontophoenix cunninghamii (Bangalow palm) “Host in contact with soil, fallen, dead, rotten [trunk]” ALA (Queensland, Australia).

Argyrodendron actinophyllum (black booyong) “Dead wood from fallen” ALA (Queensland, Australia).

Beilschmiedia tawa (tawa) “standing dead stump”, “wood”, “large fallen rotting log” ALA (New Zealand).

Betula alba (silver birch) Ginns 1985 (Sweden).

Betula papyrifera (white birch) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada).

Betula papyrifera (white birch) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as = H. laciniatum).

Betula pendula (white birch) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing Astapenko & Kutafyeva 1990 (Russia). (as = H. clathroides)

Betula spp. (birch) rotting” Ginns 1985; also “windfall” Global Catalogue of Microorganisms (Serpukhov District, Russia);  Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (4 collections in Russia); “dead unfallen”, “on stump” Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus).

Carpinus betulus (common hornbeam) Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus).

Carpinus sp. (hornbeam) or Fagus sp. (beech) Ginns 1984 (UK).

Carya sp. (hickory) “grows from dead wood” “on a dead hickory” Coker 1918 (North Carolina, USA) (as Manina flagellum).

Corylus sp. (hazelnut) Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988 (Central Europe).

Dacrydium cupressinum (rimu) “well rotted podocarp” ALA (New Zealand). This is a conifer.

Eucalyptus campanulata (New England blackbutt) “under” ALA (Queensland, Australia).

Eucalyptus regnans (mountain ash) “Inside a hollow of a mountain ash tree”, “riparian vegetation […] on top of fallen rotting log [host ID questioned]”, ‘on mountain ash trunk” “seen at two locations” ALA (Victoria, Australia).

Eucalyptus spp. (gum trees) “On dead fallen Eucalypt”, “Living Eucalyptus species” ALA (Victoria, Australia); “living eucalypts”, “on living eucalypt”, “base of eucalyptus tree” ALA (Tasmania, Australia).  [1 possibly E. obliqua]

Fagus orientalis (oriental beech) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (unclear if Georgia or Ukraine) [as = H. alpestre forma caput-ursi]; also mentioned in Doğan et alia 2005 (Turkey) See comments below.

Fagus sp.: “stump” Lacheva 2014 (Bulgaria); Micheli 1720:122 (Italy); Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France) Ginns 1985 (Denmark); Hallenberg 1983 (Denmark, France, Sweden, Yugoslavia); Abrego et alia 2017; Domanski et alia 1960 (Poland); Harrison 1961 (Nova Scotia) (as H. ramosum); “on trunks or logs, often on beech” Groves 1981 (Canada); preferred host given in Banker 1906 (USA & Canada; as H. laciniatum). Arnold 2001 proposed Hericium coralloides as an indicator species for undisturbed beech forests.

Fagus sylvatica (European beech) ATCC (Denmark); Bisko et alia 2016 (near Nijmegen, Netherlands); Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); Stalpers 1992 (Ostrava, Czechoslovakia); “on old trees” (as H. ramosum) Domański et alia 1960 (on the slope of Szeroka Wierch, SE Poland); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (7 records from Ukraine).

Fraxinus excelsior (European ash) Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus); also mentioned at the Global Fungal Red List.

Fraxinus sp. (ash) Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); also mentioned in Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (1 record from Georgia).

Fuscispora fusca (red beech) “large old log” ALA (New Zealand).

Ganoderma (?) Reported to have occurred on a Ganoderma fruiting body. Most likely the perception of the Ganoderma being the actual host was not accurate. It seems more probable that they were sharing the same host and became intimately associated. Also reported associated on a single host with Ganoderma. ALA (NZ); H. coralloides was reported to have been found sharing the same host with Ganoderma and in one case this was noted as following it. ALA (Tasmania, Australia).

Juglans sp. (walnut) Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); Monica 2014 includes, as H. erinaceus, an image that appears to be H. coralloides (Italy).

Knightia excelsa (rewa-rewa)  A specimen from Colenso: Hooker 1867:611 (Hooker doubted the ID due to an ash-grey color but this is a color that can occur when old or infected with mold); “standing and fallen”, “fallen rotten wood” ALA (New Zealand).

Metrosideros robusta (northern rātā) ALA (New Zealand).

Morus sp. (mulberry) Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); also mentioned in Persoon 1794:151 “Quercum, etiam ad Fagos et Abietis, et in Italia ex Batarra […], in Ulmis et Morus provenit.”; Micheli 1720:122 (Italy). 

Nothofagus cunninghamii (myrtle beech) “dead”, “rotten trunk”, “on fallen branches”, “on tree” ALA (Victoria, Australia); “dead tree” ALA (Tasmania, Australia).

Nothofagus menziesii (silver beech) “well rotted standing dead wood”, “very wet rotted log” ALA (New Zealand).

Nothofagus solandri (black beech) “rotten wood” Atlas of Living Australia (New Zealand).

Nothofagus sp. (unclear if black or hard beech) (i.e. respectively Nothofagus solandri var. solandri or Nothofagus truncata) “rotten stump” ALA (New Zealand).

Nothofagus spp. (southern beeches) “dead tree”, “standing dead tree” , “dead stump”, “spotted on a damp tree stump” ALA (Victoria, Australia & New Zealand).

Notholithocarpus (formerly Lithocarpus) densifolia (tan-oak) Common on dropped limbs, fallen trunks, on dead standing trees, inside hollows (as both growth forms). Very rarely on the dead tissue of a large live tree.
Local observations by Trout (Mendocino Co. California, USA).

Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo) “on decayed log” Van Hook 1922 (Indiana, USA) (as Hydnum caput-ursi). [Ed.: was this H. americanum?]

Picea abies (Norway spruce) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing  Burova 1968:363. (1 record from Russia). [Ed.: was this H. alpestre?]

Picea glauca (white spruce) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum). [Ed.: was this H. abietis?]

Picea sp. (spruce) DAVFP (BC, Canada). [Ed.: was this H. abietis?]

Pinus sylvestris (scots pine) “on trunk of supposedly living” Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus). [Ed.: H. alpestre?]

Podocarpaceae (these are conifers). Not identified beyond family. “dead standing tree” ALA (New Zealand).

Populus alba (white poplar) Haller 1768 (Sweden) [as = Echinus ramosus]

Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum).

Populus spp. Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba , Canada).

Populus sp. (poplar) DAVFP (BC, Canada); also Ginns 1985 (Ontario, Canada) and in BVN 2009 (Alberta, Canada) (as = H. ramosum); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing  Safongy 1999:79. (1 record from Russia); Sterbeeck 1675:254-255 (Netherlands).

Populus tacamahaca (black cottonwood) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum).

Populus tremula (quaking aspen) Ginns 1985 (Sweden); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing  Astapenko 1990:290. (1 record from Russia) [as = H. clathroides].

Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada); also DAVFP (BC, Canada); also Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum).

Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood) DAVFP (BC, Canada) Most common host species in BC collections. Also Ginns 1985. DAVFP included a collection of “americanum” from BC, Canada on this substrate). It i s reasonable to suspect this was a coralloides.]

Quercus cerris (Turkey oak) “on coarse woody debris” Urban 2015 (Austria).

Quercus coccifera (kermes oak) Micheli 1720:122 (Italy).

Quercus dilata (tilonj) “on dead parts of trunk” Sultana & Qreshi 2007 (Pakistan) (as H. ramosum).

Quercus garryana (garry oak) DAVFP included a collection of “americanum” from BC, Canada on this substrate). It seems reasonable to suspect this was coralloides.]

Quercus leucotrichophora (banj oak) “trees and fallen wood” Karun & Sridhar 2016 citing Zutshi & Gupta 2013 (Jamma & Kashmir, India); “Dead tree” Karun & Sridhar 2016 citing Thind & Khara 1975 (Himchal Pradesh, India) [as = Q. incana]; Cybertruffle’s Robigalia  (India) [as = Q. incana].

Quercus petraea (sessile oak) Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia  (Ukraine).

Quercus pubescens (downy oak) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia  (Ukraine).

Quercus robur (European oak) “on decaying trunk” Ginns 1985 (Sweden); “on fallen wood” Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus); ALA (Swrcow, Mahrisch-Weisskirchen, Czech Republic).

Salix sp. (willow) Ginns 1985 (Ontario, Canada).

Sloanea woollsii (yellow carabeen)  “Wood, stag buttress 250 cm diam. and roots” ALA (Queensland, Australia)

Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda tree) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia  (2 records from Ukraine) [1 as = Hericium coralloides; the other as Hericium sp.].

Tilia cordata (little-leaf tilden) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing  Burova 1968:363. (Russia); Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988 (Europe).

Tilia sp. (tilden) mentioned in Russian Red Book Plants (Russian Federation).

Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock) DAVFP (BC, Canada). [Ed.: H. abietis?]

Ulnus spp. (elm) Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); also mentioned in Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK).

Weinmannia racemosa (kāmahi) ALA (New Zealand).

“Outside of Belarus [reported] from Populus, Salix [willow], Sorbus [mountain-ash], Tilia [tilden], and Ulmus [elm].” Yurchenko 2002.

“Inhabiting big-size fallen wood, dead unfallen trunks and large branches, stumps; sometimes […] in trunk holes” Yurchenko 2002 (Belarus)

“Large stems of hardwood, especially beech” Hansen & Veesterholt 2002 (Denmark).

“Fallen decayed trunks of Fagus sylvatica and other deciduous trees, and exceptionally on Abies” Hallenberg 1983 (Sweden) (as = H. clathroides).

“Standing dead trunks, fallen trunks and larger branches” Boddy et alia 2011 (UK).

“On angiosperm wood” Stalpers 1992 (Epping forest, England).

“Logs on ground. Mostly Beech, also on Fraxinus and Ulnus” Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK).

“Beech wood” Wald et alia 2004.

“Common in Iowa on dead logs of frondose species” Miller 1935. (Iowa) (as = Hericium laciniatum/coralloides).

“On beech and hickory logs” Banker 1906 (Canada and USA: NY to CA) (as = Hericium laciniatum/ramosum).

The most common host genus [in Scandinavia] is Betula (64.3%) [Norway 30%; central & northern Sweden 41.8% and Finland 75.2%], followed by Populus, predominately tremula, (18.1%) [Norway 40%; Sweden 23.6% and Finland 14.5%];
“In Denmark the commonest host tree is Fagus sylvatica, and only one find from Betula was reported by Knudsen and Pedersen (1984). The Norwegian hosts were Betula sp., Populus tremula and Sorbus aucuparia, in this order. In [southern] Sweden, 21.8% of the collections derived from Fagus sylvatica;
Collections also exist from Acer platanoides, Alnus sp., Populus tremula, Ulmus sp., Salix sp. and Tilia cordata. In two Swedish collections, Abies was indicated as the host, but samples of the wood were lacking and it was impossible to confirm the determination; these collections also represented H. coralloides in the present sense.” (Sweden);
Additional Scandinavian collections were reported on Acer platanoides, Alnus incana & Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens & Betula pendula, Populus balsamifera, Salix spp, Tilia cordata & Ulmus sp.;
These records indicate that in northwestern Europe H. coralloides grows almost exclusively on hardwoods;
“In Central Europe H. coralloides favours Fagus sylvatica, but has also been reported from the genera Betula, Carpinus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Pyrus, Quercus and Ulmus.” 

Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988.

“Most commonly on Acer spp., frequent on Fagus and Betula, single collections on Ulmus, Carya, and Fraxinus. It is the only species seen on cottonwood and aspen (Populus spp.) in the west. Single collections on Alnus (Oregon) and live oak (California), and in Alaska on Betula and Populus.” Harrison 1973 (as Hericium ramosum).

“Grows on stumps and trunks of dead hardwoods, mainly birch, rarely beech, elm, alder, oak, linden [Tilia sp.], aspen […]” Russian Red Book Plants (Russian Federation).

“On decayed wood, fir, beech, &c.” Massee 1892 & Stevenson 1886 (England).

“Decayed log” ATCC (UK).

“Hardwood logs” Ostry et alia 2011.

“upon oak and other trees” Gray 1821:652 (UK).

“dans les fentes des vieux arbres et sur les vieilles poutres” [in the fissures of old trees and on old logs] Chevalier 1826:279 (France) (merges coralloides and ramosum). 

“on the oldest tree trunks, and mainly on oaks.” Letellier 1826.

“On la trouve sur plusieurs sortes d’arbres, sur-tout sur le chêne en France, en Italie & en Allemagne” Paulet 1793:427.

“Fruits from dead hardwood logs and stumps,” “Saprobic and possibly parasitic…typically fruiting from fallen hardwoods branches and stumps, but very rarely reported from the wounds of living hardwoods (perhaps as a result of misidentification)” Kuo website.

“Grows only on deciduous wood, usually poplar.” Henderson 1981.

“On hardwood logs” Mycoweb (California) (as H. ramosum).

“Grows on prostrate trunks of trees of various kinds.” Hyams 1900 (North Carolina, USA).

“Grows in damp areas on dead wood from native and introduced trees” (9:20), “on dead wood such as native and exotic logs and stumps.”  “normally found on damp decaying wood in sheltered locations.” (4:227) Hubregtse 2018 (Australia).

Substrates described as “dead stumps”, “large logs”, “fallen dead very rotten trunk” Atlas of Living Australia (Lists 39 records from NSW, Australia; many of which were submitted as H. clathroides.)

 “Permanent shade. […] along sides of very wet rainforest trunk on ground”. Substrates described as “on fallen tree leaning up slope”, “on rotting log on a sloping moist, shaded gully”, “on very dead, decorticated log”, “on dead fallen wood”, “on very rotten log”, “rotting stump”, “on dead wood of 6 metre high stump”, “in large tufts on old logs and may be gregarious”, “gregarious on large decaying log” ALA (Lists 34 records from Queensland, Australia; many submitted as H. clathroides.) 

“A large mass had formed low down on a living tree trunk, well below the track”. Substrates described as “tall dead trunk”, “upright tall dead trunk”, “on tree trunk”, “standing dead tree”, “near river in deep shade […] standing tree”, “large upright trunk”, “trunk of dead tree”, “on trunk of dead tree 1.5m above ground”, “near river in deep shade […] standing tree”, “wood, trunk”, “on underside of fallen branch of native tree”, “dead log (15cm diameter) which was in ground”, “on dead treefern frond […] not sure of identity”, “wet forest, base of dead standing tree” ALA (Lists 56 records from Victoria, Australia; many submitted as H. clathroides.). 

Reported from a variety of cool wet habitats in Tasmania: “Riverine rainforest”, “wet riverine environment”, “Cool temperate mixed forest. The myrtle side of the forest”, “In beech forest”, “Mixed cool temperate forest with Nothofagus cunninghamii and Eucalyptus obliqua”, “Eucalypt rainforest with Nothofagus, laurel, Pomaderris and satinwood”, “Mixed wet forest: Acacia melanoxylon, Nothofagus cunninghamii, Monotoca glauca”, “Mixed cool temperate forest with myrtle” “Cool temperate forest with Eucalyptus, myrtle, leatherwood and native laurel”, “Mixed myrtle, manferns, leatherwood, sassafras”, “wet forest with Sassafras”, , Reported in Huon pine / Nothofagus rainforest, in forests with Nothofagus predominating, commonly reported from “wet sclerophyll” habitat and in “cool temperate mixed forest, dominated by Nothofagus cunninghamii, manferns and sassafras”, “Site was logged many years ago”. Reported substrates were a familiar mix: “Large troup on rotting log”, “fallen log “, “standing dead tree”, “dead tree trunk”, “tree trunk”, “rotting stump”, “stump of a rotting tree”, “very rotten stump”, “tree buttress or stump”, “fallen to ground, decaying”, “magnificent display up entire dead tree trunk”, It was found on several living Eucalyptus. ALA (Lists 162 records from Tasmania, Australia).

Many reports from New Zealand’s beech forests. Substrates described as “dead wood”, “standing stump”, “rotten stump”, “dead trunk”, “rotting tree trunk”, “dead standing tree”, “fallen wood”, “large log”, “rotting log”, “rotten log”, “wet rotted log”, “very rotten log”, “decayed fallen log”, “hardwood log” (in broadleaf podocarp forest), “rotting bark on dead standing trunk”, “bark of living tree”, “tree” (no indication if live or dead). ALA (Lists 67 records from New Zealand; the vast majority as Hericium clathroides. Plus 8 additional records of the same as Hericium sp.). 

The reports from New Zealand and Australia need more study to establish if they represent one or two species. The very slender branched and long toothed specimens are quite striking by comparison to the rest. 

Colenso 1889 attempted to propose Hydnum novae-zealandiae as a new species; commenting that it was different in form from a single Hydnum laciniatum he had encountered some 40 years earlier. His newer specimen was collected from a Beilschmiedia tawa; which is not uncommonly represented as a host tree in the coralloides/laciniatum collections that are detailed at ALA. He included no illustration but his account is interesting in view of the other collection reports. Colenso considered these to be rare in New Zealand. It might be wondered if the increase of reports in subsequent years was more heavily affected by the impact of New Zealand’s logging industry or the increased frequency of nature-minded forest visitors due to tourism.

“On decayed fir, beech, ash, &c.” Cooke 1871 United States)

Occurring on Abies (fir) and Picea (spruce). Gobice 2013. [May refer to alpestre?]

Log in conifer forest. Thind & Khara 1975 (Jammu-Kashmir, India)

As H. caput-medusae:
“on the dead woods” Letellier 1826;
“On trunks of trees” Cooke 1871 (United States);
“On trunks” Massee 1892 & Stevenson 1886 (England).

Abies alba

Abies spp.

Acer spp.

Alnus spp.

Betula alba

Betula papyrifera

Betula spp.

Carpinus spp.

Carya spp.

Fagus orientalis

Fagus spp.

Fagus sylvatica

Fraxinus excelsior

Fraxinus spp.

Morus spp.

Notholithocarpus densifolia

Nyssa sylvatica

Picea glauca

Picea spp.

Populus balsamifera

Populus spp.

Populus tacamahaca

Populus tremula

Populus tremuloides

Populus trichocarpa

Quercus cerris

Quercus dilata

Quercus robur (now = Quercus pedunculata)

Salix spp.

Tilia spp.

Tsuga heterophylla

Ulmus spp.

Abies alba (silver fir) Global Catalogue of Microorganisms (Czechoslovakia, also from Yugoslavia).

Abies sp. (fir) ATCC (Yugoslavia).

Acer (maple) or Fagus (beech) Ginns 1984 (Virginia).

Alnus sp. (alder) was mentioned in Harrison 1973 (Oregon).

Betula alba (silver birch) Ginns 1985 (Sweden).

Betula papyrifera (white birch) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada).

Betula papyrifera (white birch) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as = H. laciniatum).

Betula sp. “rotting” Ginns 1985; also “windfall” Global Catalogue of Microorganisms (Serpukhov District, Russia).

Carpinus (hornbeam) or Fagus (beech) Ginns 1984 (UK).

Carya sp. (hickory) “grows from dead wood” “on a dead hickory” Coker 1918 (North Carolina, USA) (as Manina flagellum).

Fagus orientalis (oriental beech) was mentioned in Doğan et al. 2005 (Turkey) See comments below.

Fagus sp.: “stump” Lacheva 2014 (Bulgaria); also Ginns 1985 (Denmark); also Hallenberg 1983 (Denmark, France, Sweden, Yugoslavia); also Bisko et al. 2016 (Ukraine); also Abrego et al. 2017. Arnold 2001 proposed Hericium coralloides as an indicator species for undisturbed beech forests.

Fagus sylvatica (European beech) ATCC (Denmark); also Stalpers 1992 (Ostrava, Czechoslovakia).

“fallen decayed trunks of Fagus sylvatica and other deciduous trees, and exceptionally on Abies” Hallenberg 1983 (as = H. clathroides). [Noted no reaction with p-cresol.]

Fraxinus excelsior was mentioned at the Global Fungal Red List.

Fraxinus sp. (ash) was mentioned in Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK).

Morus sp. (mulberry) was mentioned in Persoon 1794: 151. “Quercum, etiam ad Fagos et Abietis, et in Italia ex Batarra […], in Ulmis et Moris provenit.”

Notholithocarpus (Lithocarpus) densifolia (tan-oak) Common on dropped limbs, fallen trunks, on dead standing trees, inside hollows (as both growth forms).
Local observation by Trout (Mendocino Co. California, USA).

Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo) “on decayed log” Van Hook 1922 (Indiana, USA) (as Hydnum caput-ursi).

Picea glauca (white spruce) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum).

Picea sp. (spruce) DAVFP (BC, Canada) (as = H. laciniatum and H. ramosum).

Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum).

Populus spp. Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba , Canada).

Populus sp. (poplar) DAVFP (BC, Canada) (as = H. laciniatum and H. ramosum); also Ginns 1985 (Ontario, Canada).

Populus tacamahaca (black cottonwood) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum).

Populus tremula  (quaking aspen) Ginns 1985 (Sweden).

Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada); also DAVFP (BC, Canada) (as = Hericium laciniatum and Hericium ramosum); also Brambilla & Sutton 1969 (Manitoba, Canada) (as H. laciniatum).

Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood) DAVFP (BC, Canada. Most common host species in BC collections.) (as = Hericium laciniatum and H. ramosum) Also Ginns 1985.

Quercus cerris (Turkey oak) “on coarse woody debris” Urban 2015 (Austria).

Quercus dilata (tilonj) “on dead parts of trunk” Sultana & Qreshi 2007 (Pakistan) (as H. ramosum).

Quercus robur (English oak) “on decaying trunk” Ginns 1985 (Sweden).

Salix sp. (willow) Ginns 1985 (Ontario, Canada).

Tilia sp. mentioned in Russian Red Book Plants (Russian Federation).

Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock) DAVFP (BC, Canada) (as laciniatum & ramosum).

Ulnus spp. (elm) was mentioned in Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK).

“fallen decayed trunks of Fagus” Hallenberg 1983 (Sweden).

“on angiosperm wood” Stalpers 1992 (Epping forest, England).

“Common in Iowa on dead logs of frondose species.” Miller 1935. (Iowa) (as = Hericium laciniatum/coralloides).

“logs on ground. Mostly Beech, also on Fraxinus and Ulnus” Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK).

“Beech wood” Wald et al 2004.

“On beech and hickory logs” Banker 1906 (Canada and USA: NY to CA) (as = Hericium laciniatum/ramosum).

“most commonly on Acer spp., frequent on Fagus and Betula, single collections on Ulmus, Carya, and Fraxinus. It is the only species seen on cottonwood and aspen (Populus spp.) in the west. Single collections on Alnus (Oregon) and live oak (California), and in Alaska on Betula and Populus.” Harrison 1973 (as Hericium ramosum).

“grows on stumps and trunks of dead hardwoods, mainly birch, rarely beech, elm, alder, oak, linden [Tilia sp.], aspen […]” Russian Red Book Plants (Russian Federation).

“fruits from dead hardwood logs and stumps,” “Saprobic and possibly parasitic…typically fruiting from fallen hardwoods branches and stumps, but very rarely reported from the wounds of living hardwoods (perhaps as a result of misidentification);” Kuo website.

“grows only on deciduous wood, usually poplar.” Henderson 1981.

“exclusively on deciduous wood” Harrison 1973 (as H. ramosum).

“decayed log” ATCC (UK).

“hardwood logs” Ostry et al 2011.

“on hardwood logs” Mycoweb (California) (as H. ramosum).

“Grows on prostrate trunks of trees of various kinds.” Hyams 1900 (North Carolina, USA).

H. caput-medusae “on the dead woods”; H. coralloides “on the oldest tree trunks, and mainly on oaks.” Letellier 1826.

“on Fagus orientalis trees” “in conifer forest” “on beech trees” “on oak trees” Doğan et al. 2005  (Turkey).  However, notice in Doğan’s work that coralloides is presented as being synonymous with alpestre, ‘erinaceum’ AND ramosum. In going through his references Doğan appears to also include abietis as a synonym?

Maas Geesteranus 1959 held a similar view in asserting that coralloides was only found on conifers.

Thongbai et al. 2015 also purported coralloides to occur only conifers, probably drawing this from the literature, such as Maas Geesteranus, as they claimed it occurred exclusively on conifers. No reference was included by Thongbai on this particular point.

Listed as being found on Abies and various conifers in Rastetter 1983 (Germany)

It seems sound, where reference material still exists in tissue banks, to suggest a re-evaluation of the European coralloides reported on conifers as possibly alpestre and of the American coralloides reported on conifers as possibly being abietis?