Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus
[Commonly accepted name.]
See comments on H. erinaceum.

Abies homolepis 

Acer macrophyllum

Acer nigrum

Acer rubrum

Acer saccharinum 

Acer saccharum

Acer spp.

Aesculus sp.

Ailanthus altissima

Albizia julibrissin

Alnus sp.

Betula sp.

Carpinus betulus

Carya aquatica 

Carya spp.

Castanea sativa

Castanopsis cuspidata

Castanopsis sp. 

Celtis laevigata 

Ceratonia siliqua

Diospyros virginiana

Eucalyptus sp.

Fagus crenata 

Fagus grandifolia

Fagus moesiaca

Fagus spp.

Fagus sylvatica

Juglans sp.

Liquidambar styraciflua

Liriodendron tulipifera 

Malus sp.

Morus sp. 

Notholithocarpus densifolia

Nyssa sp.

Nyssa sylvatica 

Platanus occidentalis

Platanus racemosa

Platanus spp.

Populus tremula 

Prunus sp.

Quercus acutissima 

Quercus agrifolia

Quercus alba

Quercus cerris

Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata 

Quercus chrysolepis

Quercus coccinea

Quercus conferta [Now = Q. frainetto]

Quercus douglasii 

Quercus faginea

Quercus garryana

Quercus gilva 

Quercus glauca 

Quercus hypoleucoides

Quercus imbricaria 

Quercus kelloggii

Quercus laurifolia 

Quercus leucotrichophora 

Quercus lobata

Quercus lyrata 

Quercus mongolica var. grosseserrata 

Quercus mongolica

Quercus montana

Quercus nigra 

Quercus nuttallii 

Quercus palustris 

Quercus petraea

Quercus phellos

Quercus prinus

Quercus pubescens

Quercus pyrenaica 

Quercus robur (now = Quercus pedunculata) 

Quercus rubra

Quercus salicina 

Quercus semecarpifolia

Quercus serrata 

Quercus spp.

Quercus velutina

Quercus wislizeni

Robinia pseudoacacia

Robinia spp.

Salix nigra 

Sorbus sp. 

Tilia spp. 

Ulmus carpinifolia

Ulmus sp.

Abies homolepis (Nikko fir) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan).

Acer macrophyllum (broadleaf maple) DAVFP (BC, Canada).

Acer nigrum (black maple) “wood rot, sometimes heart rot of living trees” Anonymous 1960 (Vermont to Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota). 

Acer rubrum (red maple) “white heart rot” Ellett 1989 (Alaska).

Acer saccharinum (silver maple) See comment under A. nigrum. Anonymous 1960 (Kansas, Maryland, New Jersey) & Ginns 1985 (New Jersey); USDA collection list (Kansas) (BPI 261863); “white heart rot” Ellett 1989 (Alaska).

Acer saccharum (sugar maple) See comment under A. nigrum. Anonymous 1960 (Vermont to Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota); On living tree “within a hole 18 feet high on the bole.” Eslyn 1962 (Iowa); Maneval 1937 (Missouri); Preston & Dosdall 1955 (Minnesota).

Acer sp. (maple) Isolated from mine timbers. Esyln & Lombard 1963 (USA); Rastetter 1983 citing Marchand (France).

Acer spp. (maples) Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); in Henderson 1981; and Horst 2013.

Aesculus sp. (horse chestnut) Doll 1979 “once” (Mecklenburg, Germany).

Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven) On live trunk in urban center. Mir et alia 2017 (Balearic Island, Menorca); Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France) (as Ailanthus glandulosa). 

Albizia julibrissin (silk tree) “annually pruned […] in urban areas.” Global Fungal Red List; “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Greece); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia mentions a collection of “Hericium sp.” from this host (Ukraine).

Alnus sp. (alder) Spaulding 1961 (Great Britain); “trunks” USDA collection list (Germany) (BPI 261864).

Betula spp. (birch) Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); Harrison 1961 (Nova Scotia) Ginns 1985 suspected the mating indicating this ID had been based on a misidentified tester strain; A collection was also reported in Mackay 1904 (as H. erinaceum).

Carpinus betulus (common hornbeam) On dead stump. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).

Carpinus sp. (alder) Spaulding 1961 (Great Britain).

Carya aquatica (water hickory) Parris 1959 (Mississippi).

Carya sp. (hickory) “on a dead log” in Banker 1906 (as Hicoria).

Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) in crevices, wounds and hollows Bresadola 1906 (Europe).

Castanopsis cuspidata (Japanese chinquapin or shiia) On dead trunks. Otani 1957 (Japan); Spaulding 1961 (Japan).

Castanopsis sp. (chinquapin) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan)

Celtis laevigata (southern hackberry) Anonymous 1960 (USA).

Ceratonia siliqua (carob tree) “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Crete). 

Diospyros virginiana (American persimmon) “wood rot.” Anonymous 1960 (Louisiana).

Eucalyptus sp. was mentioned in Harrison 1973 (California, USA); “stump” ; USDA collection list (California) (BPI 261865); “stump dead” USDA collection list (California) (BPI 261866 & 261867). [Eucalyptus also successfully used in Australian cultivation.]

Fagus crenata (Japanese beech) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan).

Fagus grandifolia (American beech) “on live” Ginns 1985 (Pennsylvania, USA); “usually on dead trunks, sometimes on living trees” Anonymous 1960 (Maine, New York, Vermont, West Virginia). 

Fagus moesiaca (Balkan beech) Karadzic 2006 (Serbia & Montenegro).

Fagus sp. (beech) “stump” “fallen beech trunk” Lacheva 2014 (Bulgaria); Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); Rastetter 1983 citing Marchand (France); “collected from stumps” Afyon et alia 2009 (Sinop, Boyabat, Turkey); one of the main host trees. Doll 1979 (Mecklenburg, Germany); Stasińska 1999 (NW Poland in mountains not low areas); Ginns 1985 (UK); Harrison alluded it to only being true in earlier times due to loss of beech forests. Harrison 1961 (Nova Scotia); “living” ; USDA collection list (West Virginia) (BPI 261868 & 348384).

Fagus sylvatica (European beech) ATCC and Bisko et alia 2016 (the Netherlands); Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); “On trunks” Berkeley 1860 (UK); on living. Spaulding 1961 (Germany); ; USDA collection list (Germany) (BPI 261870); on living and dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2015 (Poland, Czech Repubic, Hungary & Austria); on live and dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2015 & 2017 (Slovakia); “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Greece); on live and dead. Sikora & Neubauer 2015 (Poland); Dudka et alia 2004 (Ukraine).

Fraxinus sp. (ash) Anonymous 1960 (USA); Rastetter 1983 citing Marchand (France).

Juglans sp. (walnut) Anonymous 1960 & Cybertruffle’s Robigalia cited Teng 1996:314. (1 record from China); Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); Rastetter 1983 citing Marchand (France); also in Monica 2014 . Monica’s ID needs to be questioned: the included photo appears to be H. laciniatum/coralloides (Italy); also in Doll 1979 citing Bourdot & Galzin 1927.

Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum) “On wood” Alfieri et alia 1984 (Florida); Nakasone 1996 (southern USA); “Wood rot. Sometimes on living trees” Anonymous 1960 (Gulf states). It seems possible that this was in reference to Hericium americanum?

Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree) “Wood rot” Anonymous 1960 (Virginia).

Magnoliopsidae ord. indet. (this is a rather broad category) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia citing Teng 1996:314. (12 records from China). 

Malus sp. (crabapples & apples) Doll 1979 citing Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France).

Morus sp. Bresadola 1906 (Europe).

Notholithocarpus (Lithocarpus) densifolia (tan-oak) On living trees; less common on fallen trunks. Local observation by Trout (Mendocino Co, California, USA).

Nyssa sp. (tupelo) “wood rot, sometimes on living trees.” Anonymous 1960 (North Carolina).

Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo or sour gum) “white spongy heart rot” Anonymous 1960 (North Carolina).

Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore) Oudemans (1919–1924 (USA); “trunk rot, sometimes on living trees” Anonymous 1960 (North Carolina).

Platanus racemosa (California sycamore) Oudemans 1919–1924 (USA).

Platanus sp. (plane tree) was also mentioned in Harrison 1973.

Populus tremula (quaking aspen) Dudka et alia 2004 (Ukraine).

Prunus sp. Bresadola 1906 (Europe).

Quercus acutissima (sawtooth oak) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan).

Quercus agrifolia (coast live oak) Anonymous 1964 & Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California); USDA collection list (California) (BPI 262011).

Quercus alba (white oak) “white spongy butt and heart rot” Anonymous 1960 (New York to Alabama, Arkansas, Iowa); ATCC (New Jersey); “on live” Ginns 1985 (New Jersey, Pennsylvania, USA); Grand 1985 (North Carolina); Berry 1969 (Kentucky); Maneval 1937 (Missouri); USDA collection list (Washington, DC) (BPI 261878 & 262002); USDA collection list (Maryland) (BPI 262003); USDA collection list (Virginia) (BPI 262007, 262009 & 262012); Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA); “Butt & heart rot” Ellett 1989 (Alaska).

Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (oriental white oak) Tai 1979 (China)

Quercus cerris (turkey oak) Kew Gardens (England); on living and on dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).

Quercus chrysolepis (canyon live oak) French 1989 & Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).

Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak) Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA); “heart & butt rot” Ellett 1989 (Alaska).

Quercus conferta (Hungarian oak) “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Greece).

Quercus douglasii (blue oak) French 1989 (California).

Quercus faginea (Portuguese oak) on live tree. Merino Alcántara 2014 (Andalusia, Spain).

Quercus garryana (garry oak) Shaw 1973 (Oregon).

Quercus gilva (ichiigashi) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan).

Quercus glauca (Japanese blue oak) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan).

Quercus hypoleucoides (silverleaf oak) Gilbertson et alia 1974 (Cochise Co., Arizona).

Quercus imbricaria (shingle oak) Maneval 1937 (Missouri).

Quercus kelloggii (California black oak) Live tree; from branch scar. Local observations by Trout. (Boonville and Philo, Mendocino County, California); also in Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California); USDA collection list (Grass Valley, California) (BPI 261881).

Quercus laurifolia (laurel oak) “white spongy heart rot” Anonymous 1960 (Florida).

Quercus leucotrichophora (banj oak) Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (India) [as = Q. incana].

Quercus lobata (valley oak) Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).

Quercus lyrata (overcup oak) “On wood” Parris 1959 (Mississipi).

Quercus mongolica (Mongolian oak) Spaulding 1961 (Siberia); “Decay” Chen 2003 (Jilin, Heilongjiang, Neimeng, China); “collected from a trunk of oak tree” Global Catalogue of Microorganisms (Japan) (as H. erinaceum) (as Quercus crispula (mizu-nara)].

Quercus mongolica var. grosseserrata (Mongolian oak) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan).

Quercus montana (chestnut oak) “sprout butt rot” Anonymous 1960 (Virginia).

Quercus nigra (blackjack oak) “white spongy heart rot” Anonymous 1960 (Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi); USDA collection list (Georgia) (BPI 269364).

Quercus nuttallii (Nuttall oak) “On wood” Parris 1959 (Mississippi).

Quercus palustris (pin oak) USDA collection list (Arkansas) (BPI 261882).

Quercus petraea (sessile oak) On living weakened and dead. Kunca & Čiliak 2015 & 2017 (Slovakia); Karadzic 2006 (Serbia & Montenegro); Dudka et alia 2004 (Ukraine); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (Ukraine).

Quercus phellos (willow oak) ATCC; “white spongy heart rot” Anonymous 1960 (North Carolina); “On wood” Parris 1959 (Mississippi).

Quercus prinus (chestnut oak) Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA); “Pocket rot, wood decay” Ellett 1989 (Alaska).

Quercus pubescens (downy oak) “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Greece); Dudka et alia 2004 (Ukraine); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia (Ukraine).

Quercus pyrenaica (Pyrenean oak) Cardoso et alia 1992 (Portugal).

Quercus robur (English oak) Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988 (Europe); Cybertruffle’s Robigalia cited Gizhytska 1929 (Ukraine).

Quercus rubra (red oak) ATCC; “On wood” Ginns 1985; Stalpers 1992 (All three Virginia); “white spongy heart and sapwood rot, wound rot of living trees.” Anonymous 1960 (West Virginia) (as Quercus borealis); Hanlin 1966 (Georgia).

Quercus salicina (Japanese willowleaf oak) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan)

 Quercus semecarpifolia (brown oak) “Decay” Chen 2003 (Tibet, Sichuan, China).

Quercus serrata (konara) Kobayashi 2007 (Japan).

Quercus sp. (oak) “on standing” “trunk” Ginns 1985 (Maryland); on living and dead: Sikora & Neubauer 2015 (Poland); on dead oak: Rastetter 1983 (France); Doll 1979: one of the main host trees (Mecklenburg, Germany); USDA collection list (Czechoslovakia) (BPI 261875 & 261877); Spaulding 1961 (Denmark & UK); “On trunks” Berkeley 1860 (UK); “On wood” Teng 1996 (China); Balfour-Browne 1968 (Nepal) (3300m in thick forest); ; “living” USDA collection list (North Borneo) (BPI 261876); Campbell et alia 1950 & Hanlin 1966 (Georgia); “rotten” ; USDA collection list (Maryland) (BPI 262008); USDA collection list (Tennessee) (BPI 324036); “log dead” USDA collection list (Virginia) (BPI 261872); Maneval (Missouri); “living” USDA collection list (Missouri) (BPI 261873 & 261874); USDA collection list (Monrovia, California) (BPI 262005); “dead” ; USDA collection list (Pt Reyes, California) (BPI 262006).

Quercus spp. (oaks) Boddy et alia 2011 (UK); also given in Persoon 1794: 153; “sur les grosses branches mortes du chêne” [on large dead branches of oak] Chevalier 1826:275 (France); on living and dead. “on old oaks” Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France); “on” Zervakis et alia 1998 (Crete); Kunca & Čiliak 2015 (Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary & Austria); Karadzic 2006 (Serbia & Montenegro); Kunca & Čiliak 2015 & 2017 (Slovakia); on dead trunks Otani 1957 (Japan); Kobayashi 2007 (Japan); “Decay” Chen 2003 (Tibet, Henan, Sichuan, China).
Berry & Lombard 1978 reported a prevalence of its occurrences on Black oak > white oak >> Scarlet oak > Chestnut oak (central USA).

Quercus velutina (eastern black oak) “decay” Ginns 1985 (Pennsylvania, USA); “white spongy heart and sapwood rot, wound rot of living trees.” Anonymous 1960 (North Carolina); Berry & Lombard 1978 (central USA); “White pocket rot” Ellett 1989 (Alaska).

Quercus wislizeni (interior live oak) Swiecki & Bernhardt 2006 (California).

Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) “Wound” USDA collection list (West Virginia) (BPI 348482); On dead stump. Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).

Robinia sp. (locust) on injured living tree was mentioned in Banker 1906 (USA); (also given in Keizer 2008).

Salix nigra (black willow) Isolated from decaying logs. Esyln & Lombard 1984 (Georgia).

Sorbus sp. (mountain ash) Doll 1979 citing Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France).

Tilia spp. (tilden) “Decay” Chen 2003 (Heilongjiang, China)

Ulmus carpinifolia (smoothleaf elm) (Now = U. minor) On dead log Kunca & Čiliak 2017 (Slovakia).

Ulmus sp. (elm) Boudier 1905 (France).

grows on trunks of wounded living hardwoods Spaulding 1961 

“On alive trunks of Quercus and Fagus” 1000-1400m. Nanagulyan & Senn-Irlet 2002 (Armenia).

“large stems of beech, both living and dead” Hansen & Veesterholt 2002 (Denmark). 

“nait des cicatrices des vieux chênes” (from scars of old oaks) Bulliard 1780.

“[…] in the scars of old oaks” Letellier 1826.

“pas rare sur vieux chênes; hêtre, noyer, Ailanthus glandulosa.” “not rare on old oaks; beech, walnut, Ailanthus glandulosa.” Bourdot & Galzin 1927 (France).

“On oak and Robinia (living trees)” “loofbomen (eik, Robinia)” Keizer 2008 (Netherlands).

“living oak and beech” Hallenberg 1983 (C & S Europe; reaching as far north as S Sweden).

“beech (77%) or oak Quercus sp. (23%)” “At 71% of sites, fruiting bodies were found on dead wood, either on lying or standing trunks, and 29% − on living trees.” Sikora & Neubauer 2015 (Poland)

“High up on wounds and stubs on living trees; fallen large diam. wood.” Boddy et alia 2011 (UK).

“Beech, oak, hornbeam, and alder trunks.” Rea 1922.

“On old oaks” Gray 1821:651 (UK) [as = Steccherinum quercinum].

“On trunks, oaks, beech, &c.” Massee 1892 and Stevenson 1886 (UK). Cooke 1871 was almost the same but gave as “United States.”

“mainly in the wounds of old standing living trees. Most often Fagus sylvatica (beech), occasionally Quercus robur (oak). […] on cut end of felled trees and on trunks of fallen trees” Hampshire Biodiversity Partnership 2003 (UK); “beech wood” Wald et alia 2004 (UK); “growing from scars on living deciduous trees, especially beech” Images on beech (UK) and on oak (USA) Roger’s mushrooms [http://www.rogersmushrooms.com/gallery/DisplayBlock~bid~6107~gid~~source~gallerydefault.asp]  Link unresponsive in 3-2019.

Oak, “fur les chênes” Paulet 1793: pages 424 & 427 (France).

“Quercia, Faggio, Noce e di altre piante decidue. “ (i.e. “Oak, Beech, Walnut [Juglans] & other deciduous species”) Monica 2014 (Italy) Photo appears to be of H. laciniatum/coralloides. 

“invariably grows out of the knotholes or wounds of the tree, which may be walnut, oak, elm, or beech.” “ranging from rare in central Europe to fairly common in southern England.” Pegler 2003.

“Growing as a weak parasite on trunks and thick branches of old, standing deciduous trees, mainly Quercus and Fagus, often in old wounds, often high above the ground and fruiting many years on the same tree. It occurs in old, deciduous forests but also on planted trees in parks and along roadsides.” ECCF 2001 (“Widespread in Europe”).

‘very rare in northern Europe, and has been found frequently only in Denmark.”

Classified as endangered in Sweden and in Poland; “usually grows on Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur, but also occurs on Betula, Juglans, Malus and Sorbus.” 

“In Central Europe further host trees are known.” 

“A characteristic site is a knothole or wound on a standing, living tree.” 

Koski-Kotiranta & Niemelä 1988.

“it grows on the trunks of leafy trees, especially on chestnut, mulberry, plum etc. between crevices, scars or cavities.” Bresadola 1906 (Europe).

“undisturbed beech [Fagus] and oak [Quercus] forests with high air humidity, in the cracks and cavities of living, old or dead trunks, fallen logs and stumps.” Siller et alia 2005 (Hungary).

“on living beech trees” Afyon et alia 2004 (Sinop, Boyabat, Turkey).

“Saprobic and parasitic […] fruiting from the wounds of living hardwoods (especially oaks)” Kuo website.

“most commonly emerging from wounds in living oaks, often from holes made by woodpeckers; occasionally it is found on locusts or on beeches; sometimes it is found on dead logs. Of fifteen specimens whose habitat was given, ten were on injured living trees; of these seven were Quercus, two Robinia, and one Fagus; the remaining five plants grew on dead logs, one on Quercus, one on Hicoria [Carya], and the others unknown” “…prefers living oaks” Banker 1906.

“On living oak, locust or beech, also occasionally on dead trees” Banker 1906 (USA and Mexico).

“associated with a heart rot of oaks, occasionally on other frondose species, and is usually found growing from knotholes or cracks on living trees. It is recorded on Fagus in a number of states, on Acer spp. (Washington), Eucalyptus (California) and Platanus (Virginia).” Harrison 1972.

“Solitary from branch scars of living hardwoods or on fallen logs;” Mycoweb (California).

“Causes a white pocket rot of living trees, and is associated with wounds.” Glaeser & Smith 2010.

“grows only on deciduous wood, oak along Pacific Coast, in this area on maple.” Henderson 1981.

Bisko et alia 2016 listed culture collections from Nevada, China, Netherlands & Taiwan.

“grows on both living and dead broadleaf trees” Mori et alia 2008 (Japan & China).

“On dead standing hardwood.” BCRC (Taiwan).

“old tree stump” for both of the finds reported in the Atlas of Australia (VIC, Australia)

USDA ARS GRIN:

“Distribution: Europe, North America (USA). Reports from Canada may be Hericium americanum (Ginns 1985).”

“Substrate: Dead wood; reports on living trees in Canada may be Hericium americanum.”

  “Wood” (Mexico) appears at USDA ARS GRIN but the reference given, Heredia 1989, does not include this.